The amyloid precursor protein forms plasmalemmal clusters via its pathogenic amyloid-β domain.
ABSTRACT The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a large, ubiquitous integral membrane protein with a small amyloid-β (Aβ) domain. In the human brain, endosomal processing of APP produces neurotoxic Aβ-peptides, which are involved in Alzheimer's disease. Here, we show that the Aβ sequence exerts a physiological function when still present in the unprocessed APP molecule. From the extracellular site, Aβ concentrates APP molecules into plasmalemmal membrane protein clusters. Moreover, Aβ stabilization of clusters is a prerequisite for their targeting to endocytic clathrin structures. Therefore, we conclude that the Aβ domain directly mediates a central step in APP trafficking, driving its own conversion into neurotoxic peptides.
Article: SNAREs in native plasma membranes are active and readily form core complexes with endogenous and exogenous SNAREs.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: During neuronal exocytosis, the vesicle-bound soluble NSF attachment protein (SNAP) receptor (SNARE) synaptobrevin 2 forms complexes with the plasma membrane-bound SNAREs syntaxin 1A and SNAP25 to initiate the fusion reaction. However, it is not known whether in the native membrane SNAREs are constitutively active or whether they are unable to enter SNARE complexes unless activated before membrane fusion. Here we used binding of labeled recombinant SNAREs to inside-out carrier supported plasma membrane sheets of PC12 cells to probe for the activity of endogenous SNAREs. Binding was specific, saturable, and depended on the presence of membrane-resident SNARE partners. Our data show that virtually all of the endogenous syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 are highly reactive and readily form SNARE complexes with exogenously added SNAREs. Furthermore, complexes between endogenous SNAREs were not detectable when the membranes are freshly prepared, but they slowly form upon prolonged incubation in vitro. We conclude that the activity of membrane-resident SNAREs is not downregulated by control proteins but is constitutively active even if not engaged in fusion events.The Journal of Cell Biology 09/2002; 158(4):751-60. · 10.26 Impact Factor
Article: Paradigm shift of the plasma membrane concept from the two-dimensional continuum fluid to the partitioned fluid: high-speed single-molecule tracking of membrane molecules.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent advancements in single-molecule tracking methods with nanometer-level precision now allow researchers to observe the movement, recruitment, and activation of single molecules in the plasma membrane in living cells. In particular, on the basis of the observations by high-speed single-particle tracking at a frame rate of 40,000 frames s(1), the partitioning of the fluid plasma membrane into submicron compartments throughout the cell membrane and the hop diffusion of virtually all the molecules have been proposed. This could explain why the diffusion coefficients in the plasma membrane are considerably smaller than those in artificial membranes, and why the diffusion coefficient is reduced upon molecular complex formation (oligomerization-induced trapping). In this review, we first describe the high-speed single-molecule tracking methods, and then we critically review a new model of a partitioned fluid plasma membrane and the involvement of the actin-based membrane-skeleton "fences" and anchored-transmembrane protein "pickets" in the formation of compartment boundaries.Annual Review of Biophysics and Biomolecular Structure 02/2005; 34:351-78. · 18.96 Impact Factor
Article: Apolipoprotein receptor 2 and X11 alpha/beta mediate apolipoprotein E-induced endocytosis of amyloid-beta precursor protein and beta-secretase, leading to amyloid-beta production.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The homeostasis of amyloid-beta (Abeta) in the brain is critical to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abeta is a fragment of amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) generated in neurons by two proteases, beta- and gamma-secretases. APP and beta-secretase, both present on cell surface, are endocytosed into endosomes to produce Abeta. The molecular mechanism by which neurons trigger the production of Abeta is poorly understood. We describe here evidence that the binding of lipid-carrying apolipoprotein E (ApoE) to receptor apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) triggers the endocytosis of APP, beta-secretase, and ApoER2 in neuroblastoma cells, leading to the production of Abeta. This mechanism, mediated by adaptor protein X11alpha or X11beta (X11alpha/beta), whose PTB (phosphotyrosine-binding) domain binds to APP and a newly recognized motif in the cytosolic domain of ApoER2. Isomorphic form ApoE4 triggers the production of more Abeta than by ApoE2 or ApoE3; thus, it may play a role in the genetic risk of ApoE4 for the sporadic AD. The mechanism, which functions independently from Reelin-ApoER2 interaction, also provides a link between lipid uptake and Abeta production, which may be important for the regulation of neuronal activity.Journal of Neuroscience 05/2007; 27(15):4052-60. · 7.11 Impact Factor