Modifiable risk factors associated with bone deficits in childhood cancer survivors

Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
BMC Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 1.92). 03/2012; 12:40. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-40
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine the prevalence and severity of bone deficits in a cohort of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) compared to a healthy sibling control group, and the modifiable factors associated with bone deficits in CCS.
Cross-sectional study of bone health in 319 CCS and 208 healthy sibling controls. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Generalized estimating equations were used to compare measures between CCS and controls. Among CCS, multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate odds ratios for BMD Z-score ≤ -1.
All subjects were younger than 18 years of age. Average time since treatment was 10.1 years (range 4.3 - 17.8 years). CCS were 3.3 times more likely to have whole body BMD Z-score ≤ -1 than controls (95% CI: 1.4-7.8; p = 0.007) and 1.7 times more likely to have lumbar spine BMD Z-score ≤ -1 than controls (95% CI: 1.0-2.7; p = 0.03). Among CCS, hypogonadism, lower lean body mass, higher daily television/computer screen time, lower physical activity, and higher inflammatory marker IL-6, increased the odds of having a BMD Z-score ≤ -1.
CCS, less than 18 years of age, have bone deficits compared to a healthy control group. Sedentary lifestyle and inflammation may play a role in bone deficits in CCS. Counseling CCS and their caretakers on decreasing television/computer screen time and increasing activity may improve bone health.

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    ABSTRACT: More than 45 % of long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCS) were diagnosed with osteopenia. Our data suggest that greater awareness for osteopenia is warranted in long-term CCS, especially in survivors who are older than 30 years, male, and underweight and were treated with cranial-spinal radiotherapy and/or steroids.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at risk for growth hormone (GH) deficiency. CCS are also at increased risk for early mortality from cardiovascular (CV) disease, but the association between GH levels and CV risk remains poorly understood. The goal of this study was to examine the cross‐sectional association between stimulated GH levels and CV risk factors in CCS younger than 18 years. ProcedureA total of 276 CCS (147 males, 14.4 ± 2.6 years) ≥5 years after cancer diagnosis, and 208 sibling controls (112 males, 13.6 ± 2.4 years) participated in this cross‐sectional study, which included anthropometry, body composition, and metabolic studies. Blunted response (BR) was defined as peak GH level lbm) was measured by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Statistical analyses used linear and logistic regression accounting for sibling clustering, adjusted for age, sex, Tanner stage, and adiposity. ResultsThirty‐four (12%) CCS showed BR to GH stimulation. BR CCS were shorter and had a lower IGF‐1 than controls; only 6 of 34 received cranial radiation therapy. CCS with normal stimulated GH response were similar to controls for CV risk factors. Conversely, BR CCS had greater adiposity, higher lipids, and lower Mlbm than controls. Differences in lipids and Mlbm between BR CCS and controls remained significant after adjustment for BMI or visceral fat. ConclusionsBR to GH stimulation is prevalent in CCS youth and is associated with an unfavorable CV risk factor profile. Further studies are needed to establish the mechanisms of these associations. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013; 60: 467–473. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 03/2013; 60(3). DOI:10.1002/pbc.24308 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 01/2015; 62(4). DOI:10.1002/pbc.25370 · 2.35 Impact Factor

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