Antinociceptive properties and nitric oxide synthase inhibitory action of new ruthenium complexes
ABSTRACT This study evaluates the actions of the new ruthenium complexes trans-[RuCl2(nic)4] (Complex I) and trans-[RuCl2(i-nic)4] (Complex II) as antinociceptives, and their interaction with nitric oxide isoenzymes and with acetylcholine-induced relaxation of rat and rabbit aorta. Complex II inhibited, in a graded manner, neuronal and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, and was about two fold more effective in inhibiting the neuronal NO synthase than the inducible form of the enzyme. Complex I was inactive. Both complexes failed to interfere with constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase because they did not change the mean arterial blood pressure of rats. The vasorelaxant effect of acetylcholine was markedly antagonised by the Complexes I and II in rings of both rat and rabbit aorta. Complexes I and II, given intraperitoneally, like Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and NG-nitro-l-arginine (l-NOARG), inhibited, in a graded manner, both phases of the pain response induced by formalin. The actions of l-NAME, l-NOARG and Complex II, but not that of Complex I, were largely reversed by l-arginine. Both complexes failed to affect the motor response of animals in the rota-rod test and had no effect in the hot-plate assay. Together, these findings provide indications that the new ruthenium complexes, especially Complex II and its derivatives, might be of potential therapeutic benefit in the management of pain disorders.
Article: Nitric oxide in skeletal muscle.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen intermediates modulate skeletal muscle contraction, but little is known about the role of nitric oxide (NO). Here we show that rat skeletal muscle expresses neuronal-type NO synthase and that activity varies among several respiratory and limb muscles. Immunohistochemistry showed prominent staining of type II (fast) fibre cell membranes with antibodies against neuronal-type NO synthase. NO synthase activity in muscles correlated with type II fibre density. Resting diaphragm muscle produced detectable NO chi, but no reactive oxygen intermediates. In contrast, actively contracting muscle generated increased levels of reactive oxygen intermediates. Contractile function was augmented by blockers of NO synthase, extracellular NO chelation, and guanylyl cyclase inhibition; it was depressed by NO donors and by increased levels of cyclic GMP. Force-frequency plots of different muscles showed an inverse correlation between NO synthase activity and force development. Our results support two physiological functions of NO in skeletal muscle. The first is to promote relaxation through the cGMP pathway. The second is to modulate increases in contraction that are dependent on reactive oxygen intermediates and which are thought to occur through reactions with regulatory thiols on the sarcoplasmic reticulum.Nature 01/1995; 372(6506):546-8. · 38.60 Impact Factor
- Pain 07/1983; 16(2):109-10. · 5.64 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Complementary DNA clones corresponding to human brain nitric oxide (NO) synthase have been isolated. The deduced amino acid sequence revealed an overall identity with rat brain NO synthase of about 93% and contained all suggested consensus sites for binding of the co-factors. The cDNA transfected COS-1 cells showed significant NO synthase activity with the typical co-factor requirements. Unexpectedly, messenger RNA levels of this isoform of NO synthase was more abundant in human skeletal muscle than human brain. Moreover, we detected high NO synthase activity and the expressed protein in human skeletal muscle by Western blot analysis, indicating a possible novel function of NO in skeletal muscle.FEBS Letters 02/1993; 316(2):175-80. · 3.58 Impact Factor