Chemically-speciated on-road PM2.5 motor vehicle emission factors in Hong Kong

Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada, USA
Science of The Total Environment (Impact Factor: 3.16). 03/2010; 408(7):1621-1627. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.11.061
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT PM2.5 (particle with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) was measured in different microenvironments of Hong Kong (including one urban tunnel, one Hong Kong/Mainland boundary roadside site, two urban roadside sites, and one urban ambient site) in 2003. The concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble ions, and up to 40 elements (Na to U) were determined. The average PM2.5 mass concentrations were 229 ± 90, 129 ± 95, 69 ± 12, 49 ± 18 µg m− 3 in the urban tunnel, cross boundary roadside, urban roadside, and urban ambient environments, respectively. Carbonaceous particles (sum of organic material [OM] and EC) were the dominant constituents, on average, accounting for ∼ 82% of PM2.5 emissions in the tunnel, ∼ 70% at the three roadside sites, and ∼ 48% at the ambient site, respectively. The OC/EC ratios were 0.6 ± 0.2 and 0.8 ± 0.1 at the tunnel and roadside sites, respectively, suggesting carbonaceous aerosols were mainly from vehicle exhausts. Higher OC/EC ratio (1.9 ± 0.7) occurred at the ambient site, indicating contributions from secondary organic aerosols. The PM2.5 emission factor for on-road diesel-fueled vehicles in the urban area of Hong Kong was 257 ± 31 mg veh− 1 km− 1, with a composition of ∼ 51% EC, ∼ 26% OC, and ∼ 9% SO4=. The other inorganic ions and elements made up ∼ 11% of the total PM2.5 emissions. OC composed the largest fraction (∼ 51%) in gasoline and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) emissions, followed by EC (∼ 19%). Diesel engines showed higher emission rates than did gasoline and LPG engines for most pollutants, except for V, Br, Sb, and Ba.

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