Age-related Changes in Human Lens Crystallins Identified by Two-dimensional Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to identify the major protein components in adult human lenses and to analyse the specific age-related changes in these proteins using two-dimensional electrophoresis, Edman sequencing, and in conjunction with the data in the accompanying manuscript, mass spectrometry. The majority of changes in the two-dimensional electrophoretic pattern of lens proteins occurred prior to 17 years of age, and included a decrease in proteins migrating to the original positions of βB1, βB3, βA3, γC and γD, and the appearance of many new species with apparent molecular weights on two-dimensional electrophoretic gels similar to βB2 and γS, but having more acidic pIs. These proteins were identified as deamidated forms of βB1 and βA3/A1 missing portions of theirN-terminal extensions. With the exception of αB, deamidation was detected in all crystallin species. These data indicated that a major fraction of the water-soluble protein of the adult human lens is composed of truncated βB1 and βA3/A1 crystallins, and that nearly all human crystallins, including the β-crystallins, are susceptible to deamidation. The results also provided the most detailed map to date of the identities of protein species on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels of adult human lenses.
Article: Decreasing the homodimer interaction: a common mechanism shared by the deltaG91 mutation and deamidation in betaA3-crystallin.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cataracts can be broadly divided into two types: congenital cataracts and age-related cataracts. DeltaG91 is a previously discovered congenital mutation in betaA3-crystallin that impairs protein solubility. On the other hand, the deamidation of beta-crystallin is a significant feature in aged and cataractous lenses. Several deamidation sites were also identified in betaA3-crystallin. The present study is to compare the functional consequence of DeltaG91 mutation and the deamidation of betaA3-crystallin in terms of folding properties and protein-protein interaction. Protein secondary structure and hydrophobic properties were investigated by in silica analysis of the wild type and mutants sequences. Full-length betaA3-crystallin was cloned into a mammalian two-hybrid system in order to investigate protein-protein interactions. Deletion and deamidation were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis protocols. Both the Q85 and Q180 deamidation sites were substituted with glutamic acid residues to mimic deamidation. Different combinations of plasmid constructs were transfected in HeLa cells, and changes of protein-protein interactions were analyzed by the luciferase assay. Bioinformatics prediction suggested that DeltaG91 mutation alters both the predicted secondary structure and hydrophobic character of betaA3-crystallin, while deamidation only exhibits minimal effects. Mammalian two-hybrid results indicated that both DeltaG91 mutation and Q85/Q180 deamidation could significantly decrease the interaction of the betaA3-crystallin homodimer. Our results provided evidence that both mutations involved in congenital cataracts and deamidation in aged lenses commonly altered protein-protein interaction between human lens betaA3-crystallins, which may lead to protein insolubilization and contribute to cataracts.Molecular vision 01/2010; 16:438-44. · 2.20 Impact Factor
Article: Alterations in lenticular proteins during ageing and selenite-induced cataractogenesis in Wistar rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine putative alterations in the major lenticular proteins in Wistar rats of different ages and to compare these alterations with those occurring in rats with selenite-induced cataract. Lenticular transparency was determined by morphological examination using slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Alterations in lenticular protein were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE (SDS-PAGE) and confirmed immunologically by western blot. Morphological examination did not reveal observable opacities in the lenses of the rats of different age groups; however, dense nuclear opacities were noted in lenses of rats in the selenite-cataract group. Western blot assays revealed age-related changes in soluble and urea-soluble lenticular proteins. Decreased alphaA- and betaB1-crystallins in the soluble fraction and aggregation of alphaA-crystallin, in addition to the degraded fragment of betaB1-crystallin, in the urea-soluble fraction appeared to occur in relation to increasing age of the rats from which the lenses were taken; similarly, cytoskeletal proteins appeared to decline with increasing age. The lenses from rats in the selenite-cataract group exhibited similar changes, except that there was also high molecular weight aggregation of alphaA-crystallin. The results of this study suggest that there is loss, as well as aggregation, of alphaA-crystallin in the aging rat lens, although there is no accompanying loss of lenticular transparency.Molecular vision 01/2010; 16:445-53. · 2.20 Impact Factor
Article: Identification of crystallin modifications in the human lens cortex and nucleus using laser capture microdissection and CyDye labeling.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: With aging, lens crystallins undergo post-translational modifications (PTMs) and these modifications are believed to play a major role in age-related cataract development. The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein profiles of crystallins and their PTMs in the cortical and nuclear regions within an aging human lens to gain a better understanding about changes in crystallins as fiber cells migrate from cortical to nuclear region. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to select and capture cells from cortical and nuclear regions of 12 mum, optimum cutting temperature (OCT) compound-embedded frozen lens sections from a 69-year-old human lens. Proteins were extracted and then analyzed by 2-D difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) with sulfonated indocyanine dye (CyDye) labeling. Crystallin identities and their PTMs were then determined by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) and Electrospray Ionization Quadripole Linear Ion-Trap Liquid Chromatography (ESI-QTRAP LC-MS/MS) mass spectrometry. Crystallin fragments (M(r) <20 kDa) were present in both cortical and nuclear regions, while high molecular weight (HMW) aggregates (M(r) > 35 kDa) were mostly localized in the nuclear region. HMW complexes contained a relatively large number of truncated and modified beta-crystallins, compared to alpha- and gamma-crystallins, and two lens-specific intermediate filaments, CP49 (phakinin) and filensin. Modified alpha-crystallins were in low abundance in the nuclear region compared to the cortical region. Several PTMs, including deamidation, oxidation, phosphorylation, ethylation, methylation, acetylation, and carbamylation, were identified in virtually all crystallins and CP49. The data provide the first report of human lens crystallin profiling by a combination of LCM, 2D-DIGE, and mass spectrometric analysis. The results suggested that as the fiber cells migrate from cortical region to the nuclear region, the crystallin degradation begins in the cortical region and continues in the nuclear region. However, a greater number of the HMW complexes exist mainly in the nuclear region.Molecular vision 01/2010; 16:476-94. · 2.20 Impact Factor