Changes in nitrogen transformations in forest soil as a result of sprinkling infiltration
ABSTRACT Sprinkling infiltration through forest soil is a relatively new technique for generating artificial groundwater reserves to supplement urban water supplies in Finland. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of infiltration and surface runoff, resulting from sprinkling infiltration, on the acidity status and nitrogen transformations in forest soil and in percolation water. The amount of infiltrated water applied annually during the study period was more than 2000 times greater than natural annual recharge in the area. The study area is located on an esker in southern Finland (Ahvenisto, Hämeenlinna). The tree cover on the relatively fertile site consisted of Scots pine and Norway spruce. The results obtained during the first two years of the project indicated that the pH(H2O) of the organic layer of the soil had increased strongly due to sprinkling infiltration. The original pH of the organic layer was 4.7–5.1, and infiltration increased the pH to 6.5. The pH of percolation water collected below the organic layer increased strongly as a result of infiltration (>6.7 during infiltration). The pH of the infiltration water is about 7.0, which is higher than that of precipitation in the area (4.5). Sprinkling infiltration initiated net nitrification due to the elevated pH and increased ammonium availability. Infiltration increased emissions of N2O from the soil. During breaks in the infiltration treatment the leaching of NO3 from the topsoil was considerable compared to that on the control plots.
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ABSTRACT: The primary objective of this monitoring is to detect long-term Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) induced changes in the water quality of small lakes, throughout Finland, with low conductivity. The monitored lakes (n=171, sampled every autumn since 1990 and in 1987) have a smaller watershed (usually headwater or seepage lakes), a larger lake/catchment ratio, and lower base cation concentrations, alkalinity and pH than Finnish lakes on average. The monitoring network provides background data for air pollution dose/response studies, critical load calculations and for the modelling of acidification scenarios. The declining sulphate deposition seems to be reflected in small headwater lakes all over southern and central Finland as a lowering of the sulphate concentration in the waters. Nitrate concentrations in these lakes have been typically low in the autumn. The base cation concentration is not generally declining, as it is in deposition in many areas. The sulphate concentration in lakes has declined more than base cations. Hydrologically, the recent years have been quite variable because of varying annual precipitation. The variation in alkalinity and pH in typical Finnish lakes is dependent on the content of humic material derived from catchments. The monitoring period is too short to reveal consistent trends in major ion chemistry. However, signs of improvement in recent years can be seen; in comparing 1993 to 1987, years with similar organic acidity and base cations, it seems that the sulphate decline in lakes monitored is compensated by a significant rise in both alkalinity and pH.Water Air and Soil Pollution 11/1995; 85(2):571-576. · 1.75 Impact Factor
- Canadian Journal of Forest Research-revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere - CAN J FOREST RES. 01/1998; 28(1):132-140.
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ABSTRACT: Using aerobic soil slurry technique nitrification and nitrous oxide production were studied in samples from a pine site in Western Finland. The site received atmospheric ammonium deposition of 7–33 kg N ha−1 a−1 from a mink farm. The experiments with soil slurries showed that the nitrification potential in the litter layer was higher at pH 6 than at pH 4. However, the nitrification potentials in the samples from the organic and mineral horizons at pH 6 and 4 were almost equal. Also N2O was produced at a higher rate at pH 6 than at pH 4 in slurries of the litter layer samples. The reverse was true for samples from the organic and mineral horizons. The highest N2O production and nitrification rates were measured in the suspensions of litter layer samples. Nitrification activity in field-moist soil samples was lower than the activity in the slurries indicating that the availability of ammonium limited nitrification in these soils. Acetylene (2.5 kPa) retarded nitrification activity (70-–100%) and N2O production (40 – 90%) in soil slurries. Acetylene inhibited the N2O production by 40–60% during the first 3 days after its addition to field-moist samples incubated in aerobic atmosphere. After 3 days the inhibition became much lower (4–5%). The results indicate that, in soil profiles of boreal coniferous forests receiving ammonium deposition, chemolithotrophic nitrification may have importance in the N2O production, and that changes in soil pH affect differently nitrification as well as N2O production in litter and deeper soil layers.FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 01/1993;