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    ABSTRACT: The misuse of stimulant medication among college students is a prevalent and growing problem. The purpose of this review and meta-analysis is to summarize the current research on rates and demographic and psychosocial correlates of stimulant medication misuse among college students, to provide methodological guidance and other ideas for future research, and to provide some preliminary suggestions for preventing and reducing misuse on college campuses. Random-effects meta-analysis found that the rate of stimulant medication misuse among college students was estimated at 17 % (95 % CI [0.13, 0.23], p < .001) and identified several psychological variables that differentiated misusers and nonusers, including symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, problems associated with alcohol use, and marijuana use. A qualitative review of the literature also revealed that Greek organization membership, academic performance, and other substance use were associated with misuse. Students are misusing primarily for academic reasons, and the most common source for obtaining stimulant medication is peers with prescriptions. Interpretation of findings is complicated by the lack of a standard misuse definition as well as validated tools for measuring stimulant misuse. The relation between stimulant medication misuse and extra curricular participation, academic outcomes, depression, and eating disorders requires further investigation, as do the reasons why students divert or misuse and whether policies on college campuses contribute to the high rates of misuse among students. Future research should also work to develop and implement effective prevention strategies for reducing the diversion and misuse of stimulant medication on college campuses.
    Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 01/2015; 18(1). DOI:10.1007/s10567-014-0177-z · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Although the interaction of brain volume with amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) and cocaine has been investigated in chronically dependent individuals, little is known about structural differences that might exist in individuals who consume ATS and cocaine occasionally but are not dependent on these drugs. Methods Regional brain volumes in 165 college aged occasional users of ATS (namely: amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylphenidate, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA) and cocaine were compared by voxel-based morphometry with 48 ATS/cocaine-naive controls. Results Grey matter volume was significantly higher in the left ventral anterior putamen of occasional users, and lower in the right dorsolateral cerebellum and right inferior parietal cortex. A regression in users alone on lifetime consumption of combined ATS (namely: amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylphenidate and MDMA) and cocaine use revealed that individuals who used more ATS/cocaine had greater volume in the right ventromedial frontal cortex. A second regression on lifetime consumption of ATS with cocaine as a covariate revealed that individuals with a greater history of ATS use alone had more grey matter volume in the left mid-insula. Interestingly, structural changes in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, insula and striatum have been consistently observed in volumetric studies of chronic ATS and cocaine dependence. Conclusion The present results suggest that these three brain regions may play a role in stimulant use even in early occasional users.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 12/2013; 135. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.11.018 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the possible association between untreated ADHD symptoms (as measured by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale) and persistent nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. Multinomial regression modeling was used to compare ADHD symptoms among three groups of college students enrolled in a longitudinal study over 4 years: (1) persistent nonmedical users of prescription stimulants, (2) persistent users of marijuana who did not use prescription stimulants nonmedically, and (3) consistent nonusers of drugs. ADHD symptoms were associated with being a persistent nonmedical user of prescription stimulants after adjustment for race/ethnicity, sex, socioeconomic status, and other illicit drug use. No associations were observed between ADHD symptoms and being a persistent marijuana user or nonuser. ADHD symptoms, and in particular inattention symptoms, appeared to be associated with nonmedical use of prescription stimulants.
    Journal of Attention Disorders 07/2011; 15(5):347-56. DOI:10.1177/1087054710367621 · 2.40 Impact Factor

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