The heart smart cardiovascular school health promotion: Behavior correlates of risk factor change

Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
Preventive Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.93). 02/1992; 21(1):18-32. DOI: 10.1016/0091-7435(92)90003-Z

ABSTRACT Background. A growing awareness of health promotion and positive lifestyle change, coupled with the knowledge that cardiovascular risk has its origins in childhood, has led to the development of health promotion programs in the elementary school. While most school-based programs target specific behaviors or enlist singular intervention modalities, the Heart Smart cardiovascular school health promotion targeted the total school environment with a multidisciplinary approach to prompt the school's varied institutions to implement changes in curriculum, school lunch, and physical education.Methods. Components of the Heart Smart environmental intervention included: (a) a school lunch program providing cardiovascular healthful food choices, reduced in fat by 30% and in sodium and sugar by 50%; (b) a physical education program promoting personal fitness and aerobic conditioning; and (c) cardiovascular risk factor screening, measuring fasting lipids and lipoproteins, anthropometrics, and blood pressure. Changes in cardiovascular risk factor status, school lunch selections, and exercise performance were compared.Results. Screening participants showed greater improvement in health knowledge than nonparticipants. School lunch choices were successfully altered, and children whose lunch choices were cardiovascular healthful evidenced the greatest cholesterol reduction. Improvements in run/walk performance were related in predicted directions to the overall cardiovascular risk profile. Increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed at intervention schools.Conclusion. Observations indicate a relationship between behavior change and physiologic changes achieved in a total school health promotion to reduce cardiovascular risk.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess the long-term effectiveness of a school-based health education intervention program 10 years after its initiation. In 1992 the total population of first grade students from three counties of Crete participated in the study. Over 1000 students were randomly selected for initial and periodic evaluation. Biochemical and behavioural parameters (anthropometric, lipoproteins, blood pressure, physical activity, dietary record and health habits) were measured. Re-evaluation of the program was performed at 3, 6 and 10 years after its initiation. Ten years after the initiation of the program, the results showed that BMI had increased significantly less (p<0.001) and performance in the shuttle run test was significantly better (p<0.001) in the intervention group as compared to the control group. The reduction in total cholesterol noted in both groups was significantly greater in the intervention group than in the control group (p<0.001). The incidence of smoking was also significantly lower in the intervention group (intervention group 7%, control group 13%, p<0.005). This program appears to improve children's health and decrease risk factors for chronic diseases. If these positive effects are maintained in the forthcoming decades, the risk of chronic diseases may well be reduced.
    Preventive Medicine 09/2010; 51(3-4):262-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2010.05.015 · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Summary Effecting positive dietary change is one of the major health challenges facing the government and health professionals and is likely to be influenced by an understanding of the factors that shape food choice. On behalf of the Food Standards Agency, the British Nutrition Foundation recently completed an in-depth, critical review of the factors that influence food choice, attempting to identify effective mechanisms and highlight existing gaps in the evidence base. This article provides a summary of the findings and recommendations of that review.
    Nutrition Bulletin 11/2004; 29(4):333 - 343. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-3010.2004.00462.x
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A health education intervention was carried out for three consecutive years on primary school Cretan children. Baseline measures were obtained from 962 pupils (509 boys and 453 girls) registered in first grade in 1992. The health education intervention programme was directed at both the children of the intervention group and their parents, and has a projected duration of 6 years. After the completion of the 3 years of intervention and while pupils were in fourth grade, measures were obtained for evaluation purposes on a random subsample of 393 pupils of the original cohort. Statistically greater improvements in the intervention, as opposed to the control group, were observed for both children's and parents' health knowledge, and children's standing broad jump, sit-ups (SUP), sit-and-reach, handgrip and endurance run test (ERT). Furthermore, time spent on moderate to vigorous physical activities out of school significantly increased for intervention group children compared to the control group. Statistically smaller increases in the intervention as opposed to the control group were observed in suprailiac skinfold and body mass index. The degree of improvement in both SUP and ERT related positively to parent's baseline physical activity score. Finally, the parental attitude of health-related hedonism related negatively to SUP improvement.
    Health Education Research 01/1999; 13(4):593-606. DOI:10.1093/her/13.4.593 · 1.66 Impact Factor