The Heart Smart cardiovascular school health promotion: Behavior correlates of risk factor change

Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
Preventive Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.09). 02/1992; 21(1):18-32. DOI: 10.1016/0091-7435(92)90003-Z


Background. A growing awareness of health promotion and positive lifestyle change, coupled with the knowledge that cardiovascular risk has its origins in childhood, has led to the development of health promotion programs in the elementary school. While most school-based programs target specific behaviors or enlist singular intervention modalities, the Heart Smart cardiovascular school health promotion targeted the total school environment with a multidisciplinary approach to prompt the school's varied institutions to implement changes in curriculum, school lunch, and physical education.Methods. Components of the Heart Smart environmental intervention included: (a) a school lunch program providing cardiovascular healthful food choices, reduced in fat by 30% and in sodium and sugar by 50%; (b) a physical education program promoting personal fitness and aerobic conditioning; and (c) cardiovascular risk factor screening, measuring fasting lipids and lipoproteins, anthropometrics, and blood pressure. Changes in cardiovascular risk factor status, school lunch selections, and exercise performance were compared.Results. Screening participants showed greater improvement in health knowledge than nonparticipants. School lunch choices were successfully altered, and children whose lunch choices were cardiovascular healthful evidenced the greatest cholesterol reduction. Improvements in run/walk performance were related in predicted directions to the overall cardiovascular risk profile. Increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed at intervention schools.Conclusion. Observations indicate a relationship between behavior change and physiologic changes achieved in a total school health promotion to reduce cardiovascular risk.

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    • "Research in this area could add to the existing knowledge base on healthy lifestyles, food security, healthy farming practices, consumer behavior and the outcome of health promoting interventions (Arbeit et al. 1992, Harrell et al. 1996, Reading 2002). In addition, a study of this nature can directly impact on the manner in which individuals function in their daily lives and how they perceive their own physical, mental and social well-being. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract: In order to truly be innovative in education, it is sometimes necessary to break away from conventional practices while, at the same time, keeping the students’ best interests in mind. We support the notion that innovation in teaching and learning plays a vital role in the success of an institution and as such have launched innovative initiatives amongst various institutions. These initiatives present various benefits, such as empowering children and supporting well-being through innovative educational wellness indicators and health promoting intervention. Based on the results obtained in this study, and the needs and knowledge based on the teachers and learners, an intervention plan was developed to support positive change within the schools and the community. This intervention plan includes the development of learning content that can be included in the curriculum without adding any additional burden to the teachers as well as the training of teachers to better implement this curriculum. The intervention further aims to assist with social change by guiding the schools in improving their learner feeding scheme and physical activity programme. The TEARS principle is an innovative 5-step enterprise that has been developed and implemented in order to pioneer the necessary changes in education.
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    • "A growing body of evidence supports the origins of adult NCDs from early life. Therefore, in recent years, much attention has been focused on primordial and primary prevention of chronic NCDs and their risk factors.[78] Breast feeding is considered as one of the protective factors against NCDs. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes, etc., are the major causes of mortality in the world, notably in low- and middle-income countries. A growing body of evidence suggests that NCDs have a complex etiology resulting from the interaction of genetic factors, gender, age, ethnicity, and the environmental factors. It is well-documented that chronic diseases in adulthood origins in early life. In recent years, much attention has been focused on primordial and primary prevention of NCD risk factors. There are many biological and epidemiological studies on beneficial effects of breastfeeding during infancy on chronic diseases in adulthood, particularly on hypertension, obesity, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and cardiovascular diseases. This review article aims to summarize the current literature on the long-term effects of breastfeeding on prevention of NCDs and their risk factors. The current literature is controversial about these effects; however, a growing body of evidence suggests that breastfeeding has protective roles against obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and type II diabetes mellitus during adulthood. In addition to its short-term benefits, encouraging breastfeeding can have long-term beneficial health effects at individual and population levels.
    01/2014; 3:3. DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.124629
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    • "doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2010.05.015 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Preventive Medicine Author's personal copy 1989; Arbeit et al., 1992 "
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the long-term effectiveness of a school-based health education intervention program 10 years after its initiation. In 1992 the total population of first grade students from three counties of Crete participated in the study. Over 1000 students were randomly selected for initial and periodic evaluation. Biochemical and behavioural parameters (anthropometric, lipoproteins, blood pressure, physical activity, dietary record and health habits) were measured. Re-evaluation of the program was performed at 3, 6 and 10 years after its initiation. Ten years after the initiation of the program, the results showed that BMI had increased significantly less (p<0.001) and performance in the shuttle run test was significantly better (p<0.001) in the intervention group as compared to the control group. The reduction in total cholesterol noted in both groups was significantly greater in the intervention group than in the control group (p<0.001). The incidence of smoking was also significantly lower in the intervention group (intervention group 7%, control group 13%, p<0.005). This program appears to improve children's health and decrease risk factors for chronic diseases. If these positive effects are maintained in the forthcoming decades, the risk of chronic diseases may well be reduced.
    Preventive Medicine 09/2010; 51(3-4):262-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2010.05.015 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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