Effects of soil water deficit at different growth stages on rice growth and yield under upland conditions: II. Phenology, biomass production and yield

Department of Agriculture, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
Field Crops Research (Impact Factor: 2.98). 09/1996; 48(1):47-55. DOI: 10.1016/0378-4290(96)00039-1


Phenological development, shoot dry matter production, grain yield and yield components of rice were examined in relation to drought occurring at various stages of growth. Rice was sown three or four times at three-week intervals in the field in each of two years, and performance in three stress trials was compared with that in corresponding irrigation trials, with the aim of quantifying the response of the crop to water stress of 23–34 days' duration developing at different growth stages. When drought occurred during vegetative stages, it had only a small effect on subsequent development and grain yield. The reduction in yield of up to 30% was due to reduced panicle number per unit area in one trial, and reduced number of spikelets per panicle in another. The effect of water stress on yield was most severe when drought occurred during panicle development. Anthesis was delayed, the number of spikelets per panicle was reduced to 60% of the irrigated control and the percentage of filled grains decreased in one crop to zero. This decrease in grain yield to less than 20% of the control was associated with low dry matter production during the drought period as well as during the recovery period following the drought. When drought occurred during grain filling, the percentage of filled grains decreased to 40% and individual grain mass decreased by 20%. The effect of stress was also related to its severity during grain filling. Stress at this stage hastened maturity. The results suggest that variation in yield components due to water availability is related to the variation in dry matter production at particular growth stages. Results of a supplementary shading experiment show that the relationship between spikelet number per panicle or single grain mass and crop growth rate was the same, whether growth rate was varied by availability of soil water or solar radiation. Filled-grain percentage, however, was more sensitive to drought stress than shading when comparison was made at a similar crop growth rate.

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    • "Drought at the reproductive stage affects several events, including starch accumulation in pollen grains (Sheoran and Saini, 1996), panicle exsertion, and anther dehiscence (Liu et al., 2006; Mishra et al., 2013). Spikelet fertility, pollen fertility, and other yield components are also affected under reproductive stage drought, causing a reduction in grain yield (Boonjung and Fukai, 1996; Saini and Westgate, 2000). Reduction in peduncle elongation under drought affects the panicle exsertion, resulting in a major part of the panicle remaining inside the flag leaf (He and Serraj, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The reproductive stage of development is the most drought sensitive, and water deficits at that time can lead to a drastic yield reduction in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Understanding the genetic and physiological bases of yield and yield components under reproductive-stage drought stress will help in the development of resilient cultivars. A population of backcross inbred lines derived from upland cultivars Apo and Moroberekan was used for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with grain yield and other yield-related traits under reproductive stage drought stress and irrigated (nonstress) conditions in the field. Reproductive traits affect grain yield directly and indirectly in both irrigated and drought conditions. Days to flowering, spikelet fertility, pollen fertility, and panicle exsertion are important traits affecting grain yield under reproductive stage drought. Therefore QTLs associated with grain yield or these reproductive traits that have direct or indirect effect on grain yield are likely to be useful in improving yield under drought. A total of 45 genomic regions were identified for traits observed under reproductive stage drought stress and control conditions. The yield QTL (qYLD4.2) on chromosome 4 colocates with number of spikelets per panicle, number of filled grains per panicle, and number of secondary rachis per panicle. The QTLs qYLD4.1, qYLD6.3, and qYLD12 are other important QTLs identified in this study. Those QTLs with either direct or pleiotropic effects could be used as candidates in marker-assisted breeding for drought resistance improvement in rice.
    Crop Science 05/2015; 55(4). DOI:10.2135/cropsci2014.05.0344 · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    • "Several other researchers have also related SWP derived from volumetric water content to physiological responses during stress (Turner et al., 1986; Lilley and Fukai, 1994b; Boonjung and Fukai, 1996; Wopereis et al., 1996; Yang et al., 2007; Chu et al., 2013; Xangsayasane et al., 2014). In this study, we estimated SWP using a combination of tensiometric measurements and the mechanistic water flow model given by the Richards equation to examine if the SWP attained just before irrigation is resumed (i.e. "
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a two-year field experiment to determine if water stress could be exploited to recover yield in one drought resistant (Vandana) and three susceptible (IR36, IR72 and Swarna) rice varieties. Stress was induced in active tillering, flowering and grain filling stages by suspending irrigation until the soil became sufficiently dry and plants began to show stress symptoms when irrigation was resumed, such that plants could recover from stress. We observed that terminal soil water potential (SWP) as low as −110 kPa in the active tillering stage was less detrimental to relative water content, proline content, and electrolyte leakage. A 27% rise in the level of stress led to ∼8%, 44% and 21% increase in yield in IR36, Vandana and Swarna. The possible causes are 23%, 39% and 10% increase in the corresponding root biomass of the varieties, resulting in higher water uptake in the vegetative stage treatment plots. This was further supported by high correlations between yield and terminal SWP in this treatment. Critical limits of SWP may be identified to exploit the potential of rice varieties to sustain or improve yield under water stress. Results also suggest an opportunity to design a water saving strategy in lowland rice production.
    Agricultural Water Management 04/2015; 152:110-118. DOI:10.1016/j.agwat.2014.12.013 · 2.29 Impact Factor
    • "Rainfall distribution seems to be more important than total seasonal rainfall. A short dry spell at flowering leads to a significant decrease of grain yield and harvest index (Serraj et al. 2008), because water stress at this stage reduces grain formation more significantly than at other reproductive stages (Boonjung and Fukai 1996). A reduction on spikelet fertility and panicle exertion due to drought affects significantly grain yield. "
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    ABSTRACT: Plant breeding has a limited success for developing new cultivars with enhanced adaptation to drought-prone environments, although it has been pursued for various decades. Water use efficiency and water productivity by crops are being sought by agricultural researchers to address water scarcity in drought-prone environments across the world. They may be improved through genetic enhancement. Research on the mechanisms underlying the efficient use of water by crops and water productivity remains essential for succeeding in this endeavor. Advances in genetics, omics, precise phenotyping, and physiology coupled with new developments in bioinformatics and phenomics can provide new insights on traits that enhance adaptation to water scarcity. This chapter provides an update on research advances and breeding main grain crops for drought-prone environments. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013. All rights are reserved.
    Genomics and Breeding for Climate-Resilient Crops, Vol. 2 Target Traits, Edited by C. Kole, 01/2013: pages 203-233; Springer.
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