Effects of soil water deficit at different growth stages on rice growth and yield under upland conditions. 2. Phenology, biomass production and yield
ABSTRACT Phenological development, shoot dry matter production, grain yield and yield components of rice were examined in relation to drought occurring at various stages of growth. Rice was sown three or four times at three-week intervals in the field in each of two years, and performance in three stress trials was compared with that in corresponding irrigation trials, with the aim of quantifying the response of the crop to water stress of 23–34 days' duration developing at different growth stages. When drought occurred during vegetative stages, it had only a small effect on subsequent development and grain yield. The reduction in yield of up to 30% was due to reduced panicle number per unit area in one trial, and reduced number of spikelets per panicle in another. The effect of water stress on yield was most severe when drought occurred during panicle development. Anthesis was delayed, the number of spikelets per panicle was reduced to 60% of the irrigated control and the percentage of filled grains decreased in one crop to zero. This decrease in grain yield to less than 20% of the control was associated with low dry matter production during the drought period as well as during the recovery period following the drought. When drought occurred during grain filling, the percentage of filled grains decreased to 40% and individual grain mass decreased by 20%. The effect of stress was also related to its severity during grain filling. Stress at this stage hastened maturity. The results suggest that variation in yield components due to water availability is related to the variation in dry matter production at particular growth stages. Results of a supplementary shading experiment show that the relationship between spikelet number per panicle or single grain mass and crop growth rate was the same, whether growth rate was varied by availability of soil water or solar radiation. Filled-grain percentage, however, was more sensitive to drought stress than shading when comparison was made at a similar crop growth rate.
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ABSTRACT: Drought is a major constraint to maintaining yield stability of wheat in rain fed and limited irrigation agro-ecosystems. Genetic improvement for drought tolerance in wheat has been difficult due to quantitative nature of the trait involving multiple genes with variable effects and lack of effective selection strategies employing molecular markers. Here, a framework molecular linkage map was constructed using 173 DNA markers randomly distributed over the 21 wheat chromosomes. Grain yield and other drought-responsive shoot and root traits were phenotyped for 2 years under drought stress and well-watered conditions on a mapping population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between drought-sensitive semidwarf variety "WL711" and drought-tolerant traditional variety "C306". Thirty-seven genomics region were identified for 10 drought-related traits at 18 different chromosomal locations but most of these showed small inconsistent effects. A consistent genomic region associated with drought susceptibility index (qDSI.4B.1) was mapped on the short arm of chromosome 4B, which also controlled grain yield per plant, harvest index, and root biomass under drought. Transcriptome profiling of the parents and two RIL bulks with extreme phenotypes revealed five genes underlying this genomic region that were differentially expressed between the parents as well as the two RIL bulks, suggesting that they are likely candidates for drought tolerance. Syntenic genomic regions of barley, rice, sorghum, and maize genomes were identified that also harbor genes for drought tolerance. Markers tightly linked to this genomic region in combination with other important regions on group 7 chromosomes may be used in marker-assisted breeding for drought tolerance in wheat.Functional & Integrative Genomics 04/2012; 12(3):447-64. DOI:10.1007/s10142-012-0276-1 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In future climates, rice could more frequently be subjected to simultaneous high temperature and water stress during sensitive developmental stages such as flowering. In this study, five rice genotypes were exposed to high temperature, water stress and combined high temperature and water stress during flowering to quantify their response through spikelet fertility. Microscopic analyses revealed significant differences in anther dehiscence between treatments and genotypes, with a moderately high association with the number of germinated pollen grains on the stigma. There was a strong relationship between spikelet fertility and the number of germinated pollen on stigmas. Although, all three stress treatments resulted in spikelet sterility, high-temperature stress caused the highest sterility in all five genotypes. A cumulative linear decline in spikelet fertility with increasing duration of independent high-temperature stress and in combination with water stress was quantified. Better anther dehiscence, higher in vivo pollen germination, and higher spikelet fertility were observed in both the N22 accessions compared with IR64, Apo and Moroberekan under high temperature, water stress and combined stress, indicating its ability to tolerate multiple abiotic stresses.Research highlights▶ N22 an aus rice cultivar is a good high temperature and water deficit stress tolerant donor. ▶ High temperature at flowering stage results in cumulative linear decline in spikelet fertility. ▶ Physiology at flowering affected similarly with combined high temperature and water stress.Environmental and Experimental Botany 01/2011; 70(1):58-65. DOI:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2010.08.009 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Drought affected rice areas are predicted to double by the end of this century, demanding greater tolerance in widely adapted mega-varieties. Progress on incorporating better drought tolerance has been slow due to lack of appropriate phenotyping protocols. Furthermore, existing protocols do not consider the effect of drought and heat interactions, especially during the critical flowering stage, which could lead to false conclusion about drought tolerance. Screening germplasm and mapping-populations to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL)/candidate genes for drought tolerance is usually conducted in hot dry seasons where water supply can be controlled. Hence, results from dry season drought screening in the field could be confounded by heat stress, either directly on heat sensitive processes such as pollination or indirectly by raising tissue temperature through reducing transpirational cooling under water deficit conditions. Drought-tolerant entries or drought-responsive candidate genes/QTL identified from germplasm highly susceptible to heat stress during anthesis/flowering have to be interpreted with caution. During drought screening, germplasm tolerant to water stress but highly susceptible to heat stress has to be excluded during dry and hot season screening. Responses to drought and heat stress in rice are compared and results from field and controlled environment experiments studying drought and heat tolerance and their interaction are discussed.Functional Plant Biology 01/2011; 38(4-38):261-269. DOI:10.1071/FP10224 · 2.57 Impact Factor