Employee absenteeism: A review of the literature
ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on employee absenteeism as a form of withdrawal behavior apart from turnover. Studies examining the psychometric properties of absence measures are reviewed, along with the relationship between absenteeism and personal, attitudinal, and organizational variables. Studies exploring the relationship between absenteeism and turnover are examined according to the unit of analysis studied in the research. Programmatic efforts to reduce employee absenteeism are also reviewed. Throughout the paper emphasis is placed on the indices used by investigators to measure absenteeism, and the problems that have arisen in the literature through the use of multiple indicators of absenteeism. The review concludes with suggestions for research that are of both theoretical and practical concern.
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ABSTRACT: This paper is to find out the determinant factors of job satisfaction by analyzing the differences between genders about the effect of working condition to job satisfaction in Korea. The data of 4,216 paid-employed from the 9th Korean Labor and Income Panel(2006) has been used and individual characteristics, which can affect on job satisfaction, employment characteristics, working status, goodness of fitness and commitment in work, and social welfare benefit have been analyzed. First, women satisfied more than men in their job especially there were much differences in the types of work, working environment and time, and job stability. Second, women showed lower degree in social welfare benefit gained from employment. Third, goodness of fitness and commitment and social welfare benefit in work was the factors that affect most on job satisfaction. Each factors showed the differences between genders. Fourth, when analyzing gender differences in the determinants of job satisfaction, among working condition, occupations, types of business, and job stability affect most of men but wage, working years affect most for women so that it represent there are difference of what they expect in their job between genders. Summarily, we conclude that gender affects to job satisfaction with complex factors such as employment characteristics, social welfare benefit characteristics, working status etc. Therefore, there are much needs to develop women-friendly employment assurance policy, social welfare policy and services.
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ABSTRACT: The influence function (IF) method of calculation of stress intensity factor is applied to the case of a semicircular surface crack, of radius a, used to model a discontinuity revealed by in-service inspection of a nozzle-to-shell weld in the Pilgrim I pressure vessel. The calculations obtained for two complex thermal stress distributions and a combined stress distribution encountered in the nozzle weld, are compared with previous calculations based upon the 'Evaluation of Flaw Indications' method described in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. It is shown that a substantial difference exists between the values calculated by the Code method and the IF method, except, coincidentally, in the vicinity of the specific flaw size (a /sup +/ 0.9 in.) revealed by inspection of the Pilgrim vessel. For crack sizes substantially greater than 1.0 in., values calculated by the Code method are significantly larger than those calculated by the IF method. The IF method has the potential to improve and affect the conclusions of future analyses of structures with imperfections. (GRA)
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ABSTRACT: Based on organizational justice theories and cognitive dissonance theories, the authors hypothesized that: (a) perceived top management support for ethical behaviors will be positively correlated with all facets of job satisfaction (supervision, pay, promotion, work, co-workers, and overall); and (b) the correlation will be highest with the facet of supervision. Empirical results (n = 77 middle level managers from two organizations in South India) supported only the second hypothesis. Implications for managing a global workforce are discussed.Journal of Business Ethics 01/1998; 17(4):365-371. · 0.96 Impact Factor