V-ATPase inhibitors and implication in cancer treatment

{ "0" : "Entrerríos s/n, Santiago de Compostela C.P. 15782, Spain" , "1" : "Unidad de Medicina Molecular - Fundación Pública Galega de Medicina Xenómica, Edificio de Consultas planta -2, Hospital Clinico Universitario C.P. 15706, Santiago de Compostela, Spain" , "3" : "V-ATPase inhibitors" , "4" : "Tumor metastasis" , "5" : "Tumor cell growth" , "6" : "Chemoresistance" , "7" : "V-ATPases" , "8" : "Concanamycin" , "9" : "Bafilomycin" , "10" : "Salicylihalamide" , "11" : "Archazolid" , "12" : "Indolyls"}
Cancer Treatment Reviews (Impact Factor: 6.02). 01/2009; DOI: 10.1016/j.ctrv.2009.08.003

ABSTRACT Acidity is one of the main features of the tumors. The V-ATPase is the primary responsible for the control of tumor microenvironment by proton extrusion to the extracellular medium. The acid environment favors tissue damage, activation of destructive enzymes in the extracellular matrix, the acquisition of metastatic cell phenotypes as well as increasing the destructive capacity. The application of specific inhibitors of V-ATPases, can decrease the acidity of tumor and may allow the reduction of tumor metastasis, acting on the survival of tumor cells and prevent the phenomena of chemoresistance. Among the most important inhibitors can be distinguished benzolactone enamides (salicylihalamide), lobatamide A and B, apicularen, indolyls, oximidine, macrolactone archazolid, lobatamide C, and cruentaren. The latest generation of inhibitors includes NiK12192, FR202126, and PPI SB 242784. The purpose of this paper is to describe the latest advances in the field of V-ATPase inhibitors, describe further developments related to the classic inhibitors, and discuss new potential applications of these drugs in cancer treatment.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Neoadjuvant treatment plays a crucial role in the therapy of advanced esophageal cancer. However, response to radiochemotherapy varies widely. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been demonstrated to impact on chemotherapy in a variety of other cancers. We analyzed the impact of PPI treatment on esophageal cancer cell lines, and investigated mechanisms that mediate the effect of PPI treatment in this tumour.Methods We investigated the effect of esomeprazole treatment on cancer cell survival, adhesion, migration and chemotherapy in human adeno-(OE19) and squamous-cell-carcinoma (KYSE410) cell lines. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of PPI treatment on intra-/extracellular pH and on expression of resistance-relevant miRNAs.ResultsEsomeprazole significantly inhibited tumour cell survival (in a dose-dependent manner), adhesion and migration in both tumour subtypes. Furthermore, esomeprazole augmented the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin and 5-FU in both tumour subtypes. Surprisingly, PPI treatment led to a significant increase of intracellular pH and a decrease of the extracellular pH. Finally, we found esomeprazole affected expression of resistance-relevant miRNAs. Specifically, miR-141 and miR-200b were upregulated, whereas miR-376a was downregulated after PPI treatment in both tumour types.Conclusion Our study demonstrates for the first time that PPIs impact on tumour cell survival, metastatic potential and sensitivity towards chemotherapy in esophageal cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we observed that in this tumour entity, PPIs do not lead to intracellular acidification, but affect the expression of resistance-relevant miRNAs.
    Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 09/2014; 33(1):73. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intracellular proton extrusion in gastric cancer cells has been reported to promote cancer cell survival under acidic conditions via hydrogen/potassium adenosine triphosphatase (H(+)/K(+)-ATPase). Rabeprazole is a frequently used second-generation proton pump inhibitor (PPI) that irreversibly inactivates gastric H(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Therefore, we hypothesized that rabeprazole could reduce the viability of gastric cancer cells. In the present study, four human gastric cancer cell lines and one non-cancer gastric cell line were cultured. Cell viability, the α- and β-subunits of H(+)/K(+)-ATPase and cellular apoptosis were analyzed by dye exclusion assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, respectively. The expression level of total extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and phosphorylated-ERK protein was detected by western blot analysis. Gastric cancer cell lines were more tolerant of the acidic culture media than non-cancer cells. Administration of rabeprazole led to a marked decrease in the viability of MKN-28 cells. Exposure to rabeprazole induced significant apoptosis in AGS cells. Rabeprazole completely inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in the MKN-28 cells, whereas the same effect was not observed in either the KATO III or MKN-45 cells. The ERK 1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, attenuated the viability of the AGS cells. A similar antiproliferative effect was observed in the rabeprazole treatment group. In addition, PD98059 and rabeprazole were able to efficaciously inhibit the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in the gastric cancer cells. Therefore, it was concluded that rabeprazole can attenuate the cell viability of human gastric cancer cells through inactivation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The results of the present study demonstrate that rabeprazole inhibits the viability of gastric cancer cells in vitro and may serve as a novel antineoplastic agent.
    Oncology letters 10/2014; 8(4):1739-1744. · 0.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The dysregulation of pH by cancerous cells of solid tumors is able to create a unique milieu that is in favor of progression, invasion and metastasis as well as chemo-/immuno-resistance traits of solid tumors. Bioelements involved in pH dysregulation provide new set of oncotargets, inhibition of which may result in better clinical outcome. Methods: To study the impacts of pH dysregulation, we investigated the tumor development and progression in relation with Warburg effect, glycolysis and formation of aberrant tumor microenvironment. Results: The upregulation of glucose transporter GLUT-1 and several enzymes involve in glycolysis exacerbates this phenomenon. The accumulation of lactic acids in cancer cells provokes upregulation of several transport machineries (MCT-1, NHE-1, CA IX and H(+) pump V-ATPase) resulting in reinforced efflux of proton into extracellular fluid. This deviant event makes pH to be settled at 7.4 and 6.6 respectively in cancer cells cytoplasm and extracellular fluid within the tumor microenvironment, which in return triggers secretion of lysosomal components (various enzymes in acidic milieu with pH 5) into cytoplasm. All these anomalous phenomena make tumor microenvironment (TME) to be exposed to cocktail of various enzymes with acidic pH, upon which extracellular matrix (ECM) can be remodeled and even deformed, resulting in emergence of a complex viscose TME with high interstitial fluid pressure. Conclusion: It seems that pH dysregulation is able to remodel various physiologic functions and make solid tumors to become much more invasive and metastatic. It also can cause undesired resistance to chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Hence, cancer therapy needs to be reinforced using specific inhibitors of bioelements involved in pH dysregulation of TME in solid tumors.
    BioImpacts : BI. 01/2013; 3(4):149-162.


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May 15, 2014