Increase in Three α,β-Dicarbonyl Compound Levels in Human Uremic Plasma: Specificin VivoDetermination of Intermediates in Advanced Maillard Reaction
ABSTRACT Methylglyoxal (MGO), glypxal (GO) and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) are reactive α,β-dicarbonyl intermediates in advanced Maillard reaction, which form advanced glycation and oxidation end products (AGEs) by reaction with both lysine and arginine residues in protein. We measured these three dicarbonyl compound levels in human plasma to estimate the relationship between accumulation of α,β-dicarbonyl compounds and AGE formation reactions in uremia and diabetes in human plasma by a highly selective and specific assay, electrospray ionization liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (ESI/LC/MS). We show that 3-DG and MGO levels are significantly higher in uremia and diabetes compared with age-matched healthy controls. Only the GO level in uremic plasma is significantly higher compared to diabetes and healthy controls. In both diabetic and uremic patients, these dicarbonyl compounds promote AGE accumulationin vivo,and especially in uremic patients, increased accumulation of GO could result from accelerating oxidative stress.