Shear fracture (Mode II) of brittle rock
ABSTRACT Mode II fracture initiation and propagation plays an important role under certain loading conditions in rock fracture mechanics. Under pure tensile, pure shear, tension- and compression-shear loading, the maximum Mode I stress intensity factor, , is always larger than the maximum Mode II stress intensity factor, . For brittle materials, Mode I fracture toughness, KIC, is usually smaller than Mode II fracture toughness, KIIC. Therefore, reaches KIC before reaches KIIC, which inevitably leads to Mode I fracture. Due to inexistence of Mode II fracture under pure shear, tension- and compression-shear loading, classical mixed mode fracture criteria can only predict Mode I fracture but not Mode II fracture. A new mixed mode fracture criterion has been established for predicting Mode I or Mode II fracture of brittle materials. It is based on the examination of Mode I and Mode II stress intensity factors on the arbitrary plane θ,KI(θ) and KII(θ), varying with θ(−180°⩽θ⩽+180°), no matter what kind of loading condition is applied. Mode I fracture occurs when or and at θIC. Mode II fracture occurs when and at θIIC. The validity of the new criterion is demonstrated by experimental results of shear-box testing.Shear-box test of cubic specimen is a potential method for determining Mode II fracture toughness KIIC of rock since it can create a favorable condition for Mode II fracture, i.e. is always 2–3 times larger than and reaches KIIC before reaches KIC. The size effect on KIIC for single- and double-notched specimens has been studied for different specimen thickness B, dimensionless notch length a/W (or 2a/W) and notch inclination angle α. The test results show that KIIC decreases as B increases and becomes a constant when B is equal to or larger than W for both the single- and double-notched specimens. When a/W (or 2a/W) increases, KIIC decreases and approaches a limit. The α has a minor effect on KIIC when α is within 65–75°. Specimen dimensions for obtaining a reliable and reproducible value of KIIC under shear-box testing are presented. Numerical results demonstrate that under the shear-box loading condition, tensile stress around the notch tip can be effectively restrained by the compressive loading. At peak load, the maximum normal stress is smaller than the tensile strength of rock, while the maximum shear stress is larger than the shear strength in the presence of compressive stress, which results in shear failure.
- SourceAvailable from: Suraya M. Tahir
Article: Fracture in metal powder compaction[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper presents a preliminary assessment and qualitative analysis on fracture criterion and crack growth in metal powder compact during the cold compaction process. Based on the fracture criterion of granular materials in compression, a displacement based finite element model has been developed to analyse fracture initiation and crack growth in metal powder compact. Approximate estimation of fracture toughness variation with relative density is established in order to provide the fracture parameter as compaction proceed. A single crack initiated from the boundary of a multi-level component made of iron powder is considered in this work. The finite element simulation of the crack propagation indicates that shear crack grows during the compaction process and propagates in the direction of higher shear stress and higher relative density. This also implies that the crack grows in the direction where the compaction pressure is much higher, which is in line with the conclusion made by previous researchers on shear crack growth in materials under compression. In agreement with reported work by previous researchers, high stress concentration and high density gradient at the inner corner in multi-level component results in fracture of the component during preparation.International Journal of Solids and Structures 03/2006; 43(6):1528–1542. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents the fracture criterion of metal powder compact and simulation of the crack initiation and propagation during cold compaction process. Based on the fracture criterion of rock in compression, a displacement-based finite element model has been developed to analyze fracture initiation and crack growth in iron powder compact. Estimation of fracture toughness variation with relative density is established in order to provide the fracture parameter as compaction proceeds. A finite element model with adaptive remeshing technique is used to accommodate changes in geometry during the compaction and fracture process. Friction between crack faces is modelled using the six-node isoparametric interface elements. The shear stress and relative density distributions of the iron compact with predicted crack growth are presented, where the effects of different loading conditions are presented for comparison purposes.International Journal for Computational Methods in Engineering Science and Mechanics 01/2006; 7(4).
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ABSTRACT: The semi-circular bend specimen subjected to three-point bending has received much attention in recent years for measuring the mixed mode I/II fracture resistance of rocks. In this paper, the experimental results reported in literature and obtained from fracture tests using the semi-circular bend specimen are revisited for several different rocks including marble, sandstone, limestone, and mudstone. It is shown that a two-term expression for the near-crack-tip stresses together with a criterion based on a fixed critical tangential stress under mixed mode loading provide very good estimates for the experimental results reported for mixed mode I/II fracture in the investigated rocks.Engineering Fracture Mechanics 103:115–123. · 1.41 Impact Factor