Mode II fracture initiation and propagation plays an important role under certain loading conditions in rock fracture mechanics. Under pure tensile, pure shear, tension- and compression-shear loading, the maximum Mode I stress intensity factor, , is always larger than the maximum Mode II stress intensity factor, . For brittle materials, Mode I fracture toughness, KIC, is usually smaller than Mode II fracture toughness, KIIC. Therefore, reaches KIC before reaches KIIC, which inevitably leads to Mode I fracture. Due to inexistence of Mode II fracture under pure shear, tension- and compression-shear loading, classical mixed mode fracture criteria can only predict Mode I fracture but not Mode II fracture. A new mixed mode fracture criterion has been established for predicting Mode I or Mode II fracture of brittle materials. It is based on the examination of Mode I and Mode II stress intensity factors on the arbitrary plane θ,KI(θ) and KII(θ), varying with θ(−180°⩽θ⩽+180°), no matter what kind of loading condition is applied. Mode I fracture occurs when or and at θIC. Mode II fracture occurs when and at θIIC. The validity of the new criterion is demonstrated by experimental results of shear-box testing.Shear-box test of cubic specimen is a potential method for determining Mode II fracture toughness KIIC of rock since it can create a favorable condition for Mode II fracture, i.e. is always 2–3 times larger than and reaches KIIC before reaches KIC. The size effect on KIIC for single- and double-notched specimens has been studied for different specimen thickness B, dimensionless notch length a/W (or 2a/W) and notch inclination angle α. The test results show that KIIC decreases as B increases and becomes a constant when B is equal to or larger than W for both the single- and double-notched specimens. When a/W (or 2a/W) increases, KIIC decreases and approaches a limit. The α has a minor effect on KIIC when α is within 65–75°. Specimen dimensions for obtaining a reliable and reproducible value of KIIC under shear-box testing are presented. Numerical results demonstrate that under the shear-box loading condition, tensile stress around the notch tip can be effectively restrained by the compressive loading. At peak load, the maximum normal stress is smaller than the tensile strength of rock, while the maximum shear stress is larger than the shear strength in the presence of compressive stress, which results in shear failure.
"For the mode-I fracture, the span ratio (s/r) of 0.8 and a normalized notch length (a/r) of 0.33 with a = 0° was attempted, and for the mode-II fracture characterization , the span ratio (s/r) of 0.4 and a normalized notch length (a/r) of 0.33 with two different inclination angles, a = 45° and 50°, was selected. It is important to note that the testing configurations in this study were arbitrary, based on the previous studies        that were applied to concrete and rock materials. The testing configurations selected herein are evaluated as to whether they are truly appropriate to characterize the mode-I and mode-II fracture behavior of asphaltic materials, which is described in the later sections of this paper. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cracking in asphalt pavements causes primary failure in structure, with long-term durability issues often related to moisture damage. Fracture resistance and characteristics of asphalt materials significantly affect asphalt pavement service life. Studies have typically considered only mode-I (opening) fracture, but many observations demonstrate the significance of mode-II (sliding) fracture for better design of pavement structures and damage characterization of asphaltic materials. This study presents experimental and numerical efforts to characterize mode-I and mode-II fracture properties of a fine aggregate matrix mixture. To this end, semicircular bending tests were integrated with a digital image correlation system and extended finite element method. With limited scope and test results, this approach shows that mode-II fracture toughness is quite different from mode-I fracture toughness (approximately three times greater than mode-I), clearly indicating that mode-dependent fracture characteristics are necessary in structural design of asphalt pavements with which multiaxial fracture is usually associated.
Construction and Building Materials 02/2014; 52:413-421. DOI:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.11.055 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mode II fracture toughness and strength due to shear stress are important parameters in the stability of caprock and injection zone with application to geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. In this research, a short beam compression test has been used to determine the shear strength and the mode II fracture toughness for Coconino sandstone. The average value of the shear strength and mode II fracture toughness are estimated to be 23.53 MPa and 1.58 MPam respectively. The stress intensity factor is suggested by finite element analysis using the displacement extrapolation method. The effect of biaxial stress and water saturation on the fracture toughness has also been investigated. The fracture toughness increases with confining stresses, but decreases by 11.4% in fully saturated condition.
"The classical mixed-mode fracture criteria are incapable of predicting Mode II fracture toughness and, at present, there is no ISRM-suggested method for determining this toughness value. Many of the currently available methods used to measure the K IIC of rocks are based on the application of a pure, shear loading to the specimen, regardless of the fracture pattern, which is Fig. 1 Three fracture modes and corresponding crack surface displacements N. Erarslan, D. J. Williams why the fracturing of rocks under mixed-mode loading has attracted more attention in recent years (Chang et al. 2002; Rao et al. 2003; Al-Shayea 2005; Ayatollahi and Aliha 2007). Various criteria have been suggested in the literature to explain crack initiation and propagation under mixedmode I–II loading (Erdogan and Sih 1976; Hussain and Pu 1974). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Static diametrical compression tests conducted on inclined cracked chevron notched Brazilian disc (CCNBD) Brisbane tuff specimens showed that the notched cracks at the centre of the specimens opened (Mode I) up to 30° crack inclination angle (β), whereas crack closure (Mode II) started for β > 33°, and closure became more pronounced at even higher β of 45° and 70°. Both the experimental and numerical results showed that the crack initiation angle (θ) was a function of the β. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that fatigue damage on cyclic loading of Brisbane tuff is strongly influenced by the failure of the matrix due to both intergranular and transgranular fracturing.
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering 09/2013; 46(5). DOI:10.1007/s00603-012-0303-5 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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