Neuropharmacological effects of the aqueous extract of Nauclea latifolia root bark in rats and mice

Ahmadu Bello University, Заря, Kaduna, Nigeria
Journal of Ethnopharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.94). 02/2005; 97(1):53-57. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2004.10.003

ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the neuropharmacological effects of the aqueous extract of Nauclea latifolia root bark in rodents. Effects on the spontaneous motor activity (SMA), exploratory behaviour, pentobarbital sleeping time, apomorphine-induced stereotypic behaviour and motor coordination (rota-rod performance) were investigated. The extract (50–200 mg/kg p.o.) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the SMA and exploratory behaviour in mice and prolonged pentobarbital sleeping time in rats dose-dependently. The extract also remarkably attenuated the intensity of apomorphine-induced stereotypy dose-dependently in mice, but had no effect on motor coordination as determined by the performance on rota-rod. These results indicate the presence of psychoactive substances in the aqueous extract of the root bark of Nauclea latifolia.

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    • "and staying on the same spot (5). The stereotypic behavior was rated after each minute and mean of 15 min period was calculated and recorded (Amos et al. 2005; Erbas and Taskiran 2014). Assessment of stereotyped behavior was performed by two observers blind to the study groups. "
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is known to be associated with metabolic disturbances including diabetes mellitus, obesity and cardiovascular diseases. A growing body of evidence has suggested abnormal cytokine levels in schizophrenia. In the present study, we explored the effects of low-grade chronic inflammation on behavioral stereotypy in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In order to induce NAFLD, rats were fed with either water enriched with 30 % fructose or plain tap water for 8 weeks. Following feeding period, behavioral stereotypy was evaluated with apomorphine-induced stereotypy test. Also, levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 2 (IL-2) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the liver and brain tissues were assessed biochemically. Brain homovanilic acid (HVA) was measured to evaluate the dopamine turnover. NAFLD rats showed significantly higher stereotypy score compared to controls (p = 0.016). TNF-α, IL-2, and NF-κB levels were significantly increased in NAFLD rats compared to control group. Brain HVA levels were elevated in NAFLD rats as well (p = 0.008). Morever, NAFLD group prompted a considerable increase in brain IL-2 immunoexpression (p = 0.005). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that low-grade chronic inflammation such as NAFLD may enhance apomorphine-induced stereotypic behavior via increasing dopaminergic activity in rats.
    Metabolic Brain Disease 11/2014; 30(3). DOI:10.1007/s11011-014-9630-4 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    • "Signs of stereotypy, which contain generally sniffing and gnawing, were inspected and scored as follows: absence of stereotypy (0), rarely sniffing (1), rarely sniffing with rarely gnawing (2), frequent gnawing (3), intense continuous gnawing (4), and intense gnawing and staying on the same spot (5). The stereotypic behavior was rated after every minute, and mean of 15 min period was calculated and recorded [30] [31] [32]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Tetracycline antibiotic drug minocycline has strongly neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Minocycline has also remarkable brain tissue penetration, is clinically entirely tolerated and properly absorbed when taken orally. In our study, we class with the effects of minocycline and chlorpromazine, a conventional antipsychotic drug, by evaluating the novelty-induced rearing, apomorphine-induced stereotypic behavior, and brain MDA levels in rats. Four groups of rat (n = 7) were applied with minocycline (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.), chlorpromazine (1 mg/kg, i.p.), or isotonic saline (1 mL/kg, i.p.). One hour later, apomorphine (2 mg/kg, s.c.) was applied to each rat. Our results showed that both doses of minocycline significantly decreased the rearing behavior in rats, whereas the decrease with chlorpromazine was higher. Minocycline also decreased the stereotypy scores in a dose-dependent manner. We concluded that minocycline has beneficial effects on rearing behavior and stereotypy, which are accepted to be indicators of antipsychotic effect. Taken together, minocycline, as an anti-oxidant and cytoprotective agent, can be useful in neuroprotection especially on early stages of psychosis or prepsychotic patients with insignificant symptoms. Minocycline is worthy of being investigated for its anti-psychotic effects as a primary or an adjunctive drug.
    International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 10/2014; 7(10):3354-3361. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    • "Signs of stereotypy , which include mainly sniffing and gnawing, were observed and scored as follows: absence of stereotypy (0), occasional sniffing (1), occasional sniffing with occasional gnawing (2), frequent gnawing (3), intense continuous gnawing (4), and intense gnawing and staying on the same spot (5). The stereotypic behavior was rated after each minute and mean of 15-min period was calculated and recorded [21] "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is defined as a diffuse or multifocal cerebral dysfunction that generally occurs early during severe sepsis. The complete pathophysiology of SAE is unknown, but several mechanisms including endotoxins, inflammatory mediators, the alteration of amino acids and of neurotransmitters, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and blood-brain barrier dysfunction have been suggested. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between behavioral stereotypy and plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) and malondialdehyde (a marker of lipid peroxidation), and brain homovanillic acid content (a marker of dopamine turnover) in a surgically induced sepsis model in rats. Materials and methods: Twenty-two adult male Sprague Dawley rats were included in the study. The cecal ligation and puncture procedure was performed to induce sepsis model. Apomorphine-induced stereotypy test was achieved 24 h after cecal ligation and puncture surgery and then, blood and brain samples were collected for biochemical measurements. Results: Significantly higher stereotypy score was found in sepsis group than in the sham group (P= 0.008). Furthermore, septic rats revealed significantly higher plasma TNF-alpha (P= 0.002) and malondialdehyde levels (P= 0.002), and brain homovanillic acid (P= 0.004) compared with sham rats. There was a significant and positive correlation between the behavioral and biochemical parameters. Conclusions: Taken together, these results demonstrate the association between inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and stereotypic behavior in an experimental sepsis model. More comprehensive experimental and clinical studies are required to clarify the specific mechanisms underlying SAE.
    Journal of Surgical Research 08/2013; · 2.12 Impact Factor
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