Meningeal worm-induced neurologic disease in black-tailed deer.

Journal of wildlife diseases (Impact Factor: 1.36). 05/1977; 13(2):137-43. DOI: 10.7589/0090-3558-13.2.137
Source: PubMed


Neurologic disease attributable to Parelaphostrongylus tenuis was diagnosed in five black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) relocated from Oregon to Tennessee. Mortality occurred in the pre-release enclosure and in the release area. Infection with P. tenuis was considered the cause of an unsuccessful stocking attempt. In addition, neurologic disease was produced by experimental infection of a black-tailed x white-tailed deer hybrid. Clinical and pathologic findings were described for black-tailed and hybrid deer, and epizootiologic aspects of P. tenuis infections were discussed.

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    • "h. columbianus) (Nettles and Prestwood 1977) also resulted in severe neurologic disease. Distribution of P. tenuis infected white-tailed deer also is dependent on the presence of suitable terrestrial gastropod intermediate hosts (Gleich et al. 1977, Maze and Johnstone 1986, Upshall et al. 1986). "
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    ABSTRACT: Terrestrial gastropods were collected from wetland, grassland, and forest- ed habitats throughout eastern and southcentral South Dakota from May-Au- gust of 1999 and 2000 to assess the role of gastropods in transmission of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations throughout the state. A total of 4,063 gastropods rep- resenting 14 species, five of which were known intermediate hosts for P. tenuis, were collected throughout South Dakota during the summers of 1999 and 2000. Significantly more (P < 0.0001) gastropods were collected from east- ern than western South Dakota. Six species of snails (Zonitoides nitidus, Z. ar- boreus, Discus cronkhitei, Succinea ovalis, Gastrocopta pentadon, and Vallonia sp.) and one slug species (Deroceras laeve) accounted for 87% of the gas- tropods collected. A total of 3,468 gastropods were examined for presence of P. tenuis larvae. Three species of snails (Z. arboreus, Z. nitidus, and D. cronkhitei) and one slug species (Deroceras laeve) accounted for 93% of the total number of infected gastropods (i.e., 66 of 71). Significantly more (P = 0.005) infected gastropods were collected from semipermanent wetlands than from grasslands or forested habitats, suggesting that wetland habitats are im- portant transmission sites of P. tenuis from gastropods to white-tailed deer in South Dakota.
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    ABSTRACT: Three different antigen preparations of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis were assessed for their effectiveness in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to diagnose experimental infection of white-tailed deer (WTD). The antigen preparations were the excretory-secretory products of third-stage larvae (ES-L3), somatic antigens of third-stage larvae (sL3), and somatic antigens of the adult stage (sA) of P. tenuis. The relative sensitivities of the antigen preparations in indirect ELISA were ES-L3 > sL3 > sA. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to ES-L3 and sL3 could be detected 14 days postinfection and were consistently present in all infected animals from the first month to the end of the experiment at 5 months. In contrast, IgG antibodies to sA could not be detected at any time in 2 infected WTD. ES-L3 and sL3 proved reliable in the early detection of anti-P. tenuis antibodies and in the serological monitoring of experimentally infected animals. Significant cross-reactivity between all P. tenuis antigen preparations and sera from animals infected with parasites other than P. tenuis may preclude their use for field diagnosis. Nevertheless, isolation of unique P. tenuis antigen(s) should lead to the development of a specific serological test for infected white-tailed deer.
    Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 12/1999; 11(6):515-21. DOI:10.1177/104063879901100605 · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parelaphostrongylosis has a rapid onset and is lethal in neonatal moose (Alces alces) when large numbers of third-stage Parelaphostrongylus tenuis larvae (L3) are given experimentally. Little is known, however, about the severity and prognosis of infections acquired naturally by accidentally ingesting terrestrial gastropods which are rarely infected and have few larvae. To investigate the relationship between infecting dose, age of moose, and severity of disease, five calves were given low doses of three to 10 L3 when five (n = 2) or 9.5 mo old (n = 3). Each of two animals initially given low doses were later challenged with a dose of 15 L3. As positive controls, two calves were given doses of 15 and 30 L3, considered to be high. All five calves given low doses showed abnormal locomotory signs at 20-28 days postinoculation (DPI) that progressively became more pronounced with hind quarter weakness and front lameness. However, after 77-130 DPI, signs diminished markedly in two of these animals and disappeared in another two. Challenge infections of 15 L3 given 199 days after initial infections had no noticeable effects although an immature worm, probably resulting from the challenge, was found in the spinal cord of one animal killed 51 days later. Two positive control animals given the high doses of 15 and 30 L3 showed moderate to severe, non-resolving, locomotory signs and had to be euthanized. Results demonstrate that single, low doses of three to 10 P. tenuis L3 cause moderate disease in moose calves but over time, some worms die and animals can recover. A degree of protection may develop against future infection.
    Journal of wildlife diseases 11/2002; 38(4):789-95. DOI:10.7589/0090-3558-38.4.789 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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