Transient sweat response of the human head during cycling
ABSTRACT This research aims at quantifying transient spatial gradients in sweat production on a human head while cycling.Six test persons were studied. Each test lasted 30 min while a change in work rate was applied after 5 min (from 80 to 150 W for males and from 50 to 125 W for females). Two conditions were analyzed in this research: warm (28.3 ± 0.1 °C, 38 ± 0.6% RH and 0.1 ± 0.1 m/s air velocity) and standard (16.1° ± 0.2 C, 45% ± 0.6 RH and 2.4 ± 0.2 m/s air velocity). Sweat production of the head was measured as a function of time on the right temple, left temple and forehead. This allowed modelling the dynamics of the sweat production response. Constant steady state sweat production, time delay in sweat production, time constant of sweat production and steady state gain of sweat production were quantified and analyzed.Time constants of sweat production were shorter in the warm condition compared to the standard condition. Mean and SEM time constant of sweat production varied from 561 ± 144 s (frontal region) to 1117 ± 230 s (left temple) and 1080 ± 232 s (right temple) in the warm condition. While, at the standard condition, the time constant of sweat production varied from 873 ± 121 s at the frontal region to 1431 ± 195 s at the left temple and 1727 ± 196 s at the right temple. Additionally, also constant steady state sweat production was 0.4–0.7 mg min−1 cm−2 higher in the warm compared to the standard condition (P < 0.05). However, no differences (P > 0.05) were observed for steady state gain and time delay of sweat production between the standard and warm condition.The results of this research can be used to enhance physiological insight of the sweating process and it can also help to develop sweating thermal manikins that behave more realistically to thermal changes. Knowledge of sweat production might also be valuable when designing active controlled headgear since the reaction time of the actuator should take the dynamics of sweat rate into account as a function of work rate and thermal environmental conditions.Relevance to industryUnderstanding of the dynamic behaviour of sweat production in relation to work rate under different environmental conditions allows the design of model based controllers in headgear that actively minimize sweat production. This could help a user's desire to wear a helmet as well as his ability to concentrate.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the location of calibrated tris-acryl gelatin microspheres (TGMs) in the arterial vasculature of nasopharyngeal angiofibromas (NAFs) and paragangliomas (PGs). Forty-nine specimens (25 PGs and 24 NAFs) treated operatively after embolization with TGMs of various sizes (100-300 microm to 900-1200 microm) were stained with hematoxylin and eosin saffron and analyzed at an objective magnification of 10 or 20 with a micrometric eyepiece (magnification, x12.5). The diameter of occluded vessels, their localization (intra- or extratumoral), and the number and diameter of TGMs they contained were determined. Embolized vessels (N = 1125) were measured: 440 in PGs and 685 in NAFs. Vessels were 89% intratumoral and 11% extratumoral. The diameter of the occluded vessels increased significantly with the size range of TGMs used for embolization for each tumor type (P < .0001). Intratumoral occluded vessels were significantly smaller than extratumoral vessels (P < .0001). Distribution of TGMs within the vascular network (intratumoral or extratumoral location) were similar for NAFs and PGs. The intratumoral and extratumoral dissemination of TGMs was different when comparing 100-300-microm TGMs versus 500-700-microm TGMs (P = .0006) as well as 300-500-microm TGMs versus 500-700-microm TGMs (P = .0001). The size of the vessels occluded by TGMs and their intra- or extratumoral location directly depend on the size of the injected TGMs. The vessels located inside the tumors were smaller than those located outside the tumors. A threshold for the intratumoral penetration of TGMs in the vasculature can be proposed from these data. There was no evidence of different behavior of TGMs in NAFs versus PGs.Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 04/2005; 16(4):507-13. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The main objective of this study is to establish an approach for measuring the dry and evaporative heat dissipation cricket helmets. A range of cricket helmets has been tested using a sweating manikin within a controlled climatic chamber. The thermal manikin experiments were conducted in two stages, namely the (i) dry test and (ii) wet test. The ambient air temperature for the dry tests was controlled to ∼23 °C, and the mean skin temperatures averaged ∼35 °C. The thermal insulation value measured for the manikin with helmet ensemble ranged from 1.0 to 1.2 clo. The results showed that among the five cricket helmets, the Masuri helmet offered slightly more thermal insulation while the Elite helmet offered the least. However, under the dry laboratory conditions and with minimal air movement (air velocity = 0.08 ± 0.01 ms(-1)), small differences exist between the thermal resistance values for the tested helmets. The wet tests were conducted in an isothermal condition, with an ambient and skin mean temperatures averaged ∼35 °C, the evaporative resistance, Ret, varied between 36 and 60 m(2) Pa W(-1). These large variations in evaporative heat dissipation values are due to the presence of a thick layer of comfort lining in certain helmet designs. This finding suggests that the type and design of padding may influence the rate of evaporative heat dissipation from the head and face; hence the type of material and thickness of the padding is critical for the effectiveness of evaporative heat loss and comfort of the wearer. Issues for further investigations in field trials are discussed.Applied ergonomics 05/2013; · 1.11 Impact Factor
- 03/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0242-7