Reciprocal interactions between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors in Chinese hamster ovary cells co-transfected with the two receptors
ABSTRACT Human adenosine A2A and rat dopamine D2 receptors (A2A and D2 receptors) were co-transfected in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to study the interactions between two receptors that are co-localized in striatopallidal γ-aminobutyric acid-(GABA)ergic neurons. Membranes from transfected cells showed a high density of D2 (3.6 pmol per mg protein) and A2A receptors (0.56 pmol per mg protein). The D2 receptors were functional: an agonist, quinpirole, could stimulate GTPγS binding and reduce stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity. The A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680) decreased high-affinity binding of the agonist dopamine at D2 receptors. Activation of adenosine A2A receptors shifted the dose–response curve for quinpirole on adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) to the right. However, CGS 21680 did not affect dopamine D2 receptor-induced GTPγS binding, but did cause a concentration-dependent increase in cAMP accumulation. The maximal cAMP response was decreased by the D2 agonist quinpirole in a concentration-dependent manner, but there was no change in ec50 and no effect in cells transfected only with adenosine A2A receptors. A2A receptor activation also increased phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein and expression of c-fos mRNA. These effects were also strongly counteracted by quinpirole. These results show that the antagonistic actions between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors noted previously in vivo can also be observed in CHO cells where the two receptors are co-transfected. Thus, no brain cell-specific factors are required for such interactions. Furthermore, the interaction at the second messenger level and beyond may be quantitatively more important than A2A receptor-mediated inhibition of high affinity D2 agonist binding to the receptor.
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ABSTRACT: Adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) are highly concentrated in the striatum. Two pharmacological different functional populations of A(2A)Rs have been recently described based on their different affinities for the A(2A)R antagonist SCH-442416. This compound has high affinity for A(2A)Rs not forming heteromers or forming heteromers with adenosine A(1) receptors (A(1)Rs) while showing very low affinity for A(2A)Rs forming heteromers with dopamine D(2) receptors (D(2)Rs). It has been widely described that striatal A(1)R-A(2A)R heteromers are preferentially localized presynaptically in the glutamatergic terminals that contact GABAergic dynorphinergic neurons, and that A(2A)R-D(2)R heteromers are localized postsynaptically in GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons. In the present study we provide evidence suggesting that SCH-442416 also targets postsynaptic A(2A)R not forming heteromers with D(2)R, which are involved in the motor depressant effects induced by D(2)R antagonists. SCH-442416 counteracted motor depression in rats induced by the D(2)R antagonist raclopride at a dose that did not produce motor activation or that blocked motor depression induced by an A(2A)R agonist. Furthermore, we re-evaluated the recently suggested key role of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors (CB(1)Rs) in the effects of A(2A)R antagonists acting at postsynaptic A(2A)Rs. By recording locomotor activity and monitoring striatal glutamate release induced by cortical electrical stimulation in rats after administration of A(2A)R and CB(1)R antagonists, we did not find evidence for any significant role of endocannabinoids in the post- or presynaptic effects of A(2A)R antagonists. The present results further suggest the existence of at least two functionally and pharmacologically different populations of striatal postsynaptic A(2A)Rs.Neuropharmacology 10/2011; 61(5-6):967-74. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.06.025 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A very significant density of adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) is present in the striatum, where they are preferentially localized postsynaptically in striatopallidal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). In this localization A(2A)Rs establish reciprocal antagonistic interactions with dopamine D(2) receptors (D(2)Rs). In one type of interaction, A(2A)R and D(2)R are forming heteromers and, by means of an allosteric interaction, A(2A)R counteracts D(2)R-mediated inhibitory modulation of the effects of NMDA receptor stimulation in the striatopallidal neuron. This interaction is probably mostly responsible for the locomotor depressant and activating effects of A(2A)R agonist and antagonists, respectively. The second type of interaction involves A(2A)R and D(2)R that do not form heteromers and takes place at the level of adenylyl cyclase (AC). Due to a strong tonic effect of endogenous dopamine on striatal D(2)R, this interaction keeps A(2A)R from signaling through AC. However, under conditions of dopamine depletion or with blockade of D(2)R, A(2A)R-mediated AC activation is unleashed with an increased gene expression and activity of the striatopallidal neuron and with a consequent motor depression. This interaction is probably the main mechanism responsible for the locomotor depression induced by D(2)R antagonists. Finally, striatal A(2A)Rs are also localized presynaptically, in cortico-striatal glutamatergic terminals that contact the striato-nigral MSN. These presynaptic A(2A)Rs heteromerize with A(1) receptors (A(1)Rs) and their activation facilitates glutamate release. These three different types of A(2A)Rs can be pharmacologically dissected by their ability to bind ligands with different affinity and can therefore provide selective targets for drug development in different basal ganglia disorders.Frontiers in Neuroanatomy 06/2011; 5:36. DOI:10.3389/fnana.2011.00036 · 4.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are primarily due to the degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway. However, several other brain areas and neurotransmitters other than dopamine such as noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine and acetylcholine are affected in the disease. Moreover, adenosine because of the extensive interaction of its receptors with the dopaminergic system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of the disease. Based on the involvement of these non-dopaminergic neurotransmitters in PD and the sometimes severe adverse effects that limit the mainstay use of dopamine-based anti-parkinsonian treatments, recent assessments have called for a broadening of therapeutic options beyond the traditional dopaminergic drug arsenal. In this review we describe the interactions between dopamine and adenosine receptors that underpin the pre-clinical and clinical rationale for pursuing adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists as symptomatic and potentially neuroprotective treatment of PD. The review will pay particular attention to recent results regarding specific A(2A) receptor-receptor interactions and recent findings identifying urate, the end product of purine metabolism, as a novel prognostic biomarker and candidate neuroprotectant in PD.Progress in brain research 01/2010; 183:183-208. DOI:10.1016/S0079-6123(10)83010-9 · 5.10 Impact Factor