Reciprocal interactions between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors in Chinese hamster ovary cells co-transfected with the two receptors
ABSTRACT Human adenosine A2A and rat dopamine D2 receptors (A2A and D2 receptors) were co-transfected in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to study the interactions between two receptors that are co-localized in striatopallidal γ-aminobutyric acid-(GABA)ergic neurons. Membranes from transfected cells showed a high density of D2 (3.6 pmol per mg protein) and A2A receptors (0.56 pmol per mg protein). The D2 receptors were functional: an agonist, quinpirole, could stimulate GTPγS binding and reduce stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity. The A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680) decreased high-affinity binding of the agonist dopamine at D2 receptors. Activation of adenosine A2A receptors shifted the dose–response curve for quinpirole on adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) to the right. However, CGS 21680 did not affect dopamine D2 receptor-induced GTPγS binding, but did cause a concentration-dependent increase in cAMP accumulation. The maximal cAMP response was decreased by the D2 agonist quinpirole in a concentration-dependent manner, but there was no change in ec50 and no effect in cells transfected only with adenosine A2A receptors. A2A receptor activation also increased phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein and expression of c-fos mRNA. These effects were also strongly counteracted by quinpirole. These results show that the antagonistic actions between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors noted previously in vivo can also be observed in CHO cells where the two receptors are co-transfected. Thus, no brain cell-specific factors are required for such interactions. Furthermore, the interaction at the second messenger level and beyond may be quantitatively more important than A2A receptor-mediated inhibition of high affinity D2 agonist binding to the receptor.
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ABSTRACT: In the CNS, an antagonistic interaction has been shown between adenosine A(2A) and dopamine D(2) receptors (A(2) (A) Rs and D(2) Rs) that may be relevant both in normal and pathological conditions (i.e., Parkinson's disease). Thus, the molecular determinants mediating this receptor-receptor interaction have recently been explored, as the fine tuning of this target (namely the A(2) (A) R/D(2) R oligomer) could possibly improve the treatment of certain CNS diseases. Here, we used a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based approach to examine the allosteric modulation of the D(2) R within the A(2) (A) R/D(2) R oligomer and the dependence of this receptor-receptor interaction on two regions rich in positive charges on intracellular loop 3 of the D(2) R. Interestingly, we observed a negative allosteric effect of the D(2) R agonist quinpirole on A(2) (A) R ligand binding and activation. However, these allosteric effects were abolished upon mutation of specific arginine residues (217-222 and 267-269) on intracellular loop 3 of the D(2) R, thus demonstrating a major role of these positively charged residues in mediating the observed receptor-receptor interaction. Overall, these results provide structural insights to better understand the functioning of the A(2) (A) R/D(2) R oligomer in living cells.Journal of Neurochemistry 08/2012; 123(3):373-84. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Long-term therapy with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), still the most effective treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD), is associated with severe motor complications such as dyskinesia. Experimental and clinical data have indicated that adenosine A2A receptor antagonists can provide symptomatic improvement by potentiating L-DOPA efficacy and minimizing its side effects. It is known that the G-protein-coupled adenosine A2A, cannabinoid CB1 and dopamine D2 receptors may interact and form functional A2A-CB1-D2 receptor heteromers in co-transfected cells as well as in rat striatum. These data suggest that treatment with a combination of drugs or a single compound selectively acting on A2A-CB1-D2 heteromers may represent an alternative therapeutic treatment of PD. We investigated the expression of A2A-CB1-D2 receptor heteromers in the striatum of both naïve and hemiparkinsonian rats (HPD-rats) bearing a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion and assessed how receptor heteromer expression and biochemical properties were affected by L-DOPA treatment. Radioligand binding data showed that A2A-CB1-D2 receptor heteromers are present in the striatum of both naïve and HPD-rats. However, behavioral results indicated that the combined administration of A2A (MSX-3 or SCH58261) and CB1 (rimonabant) receptor antagonists, in the presence of L-DOPA do not produce a response different from administration of the A2A receptor antagonist alone. These behavioral results prompted identification of heteromers in L-DOPA-treated animals. Interestingly, the radioligand binding results in samples from lesioned animals suggest that the hetereomer is lost following acute or chronic treatment with L-DOPA.Experimental Neurology 02/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: WNT-5A signaling in the central nervous system is important for morphogenesis, neurogenesis and establishment of functional connectivity; the source of WNT-5A and its importance for cellular communication in the adult brain, however, are mainly unknown. We have previously investigated the inflammatory effects of WNT/β-catenin signaling in microglia in Alzheimer's disease. WNT-5A, however, generally recruits β-catenin-independent signaling. Thus, we aim here to characterize the role of WNT-5A and downstream signaling pathways for the inflammatory transformation of the brain's macrophages, the microglia. Mouse brain sections were used for immunohistochemistry. Primary isolated microglia and astrocytes were employed to characterize the WNT-induced inflammatory transformation and underlying intracellular signaling pathways by immunoblotting, quantitative mRNA analysis, proliferation and invasion assays. Further, measurements of G protein activation by [γ-35 S]GTP binding, examination of calcium fluxes and cyclic AMP production were used to define intracellular signaling pathways. Astrocytes in the adult mouse brain express high levels of WNT-5A, which could serve as a novel astroglia-microglia communication pathway. The WNT-5A-induced proinflammatory microglia response is characterized by increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, cytokines, chemokines, enhanced invasive capacity and proliferation. Mapping of intracellular transduction pathways reveals that WNT-5A activates heterotrimeric Gi/o proteins to reduce cyclic AMP levels and to activate a Gi/o protein/phospholipase C/calcium-dependent protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) axis. We show further that WNT-5A-induced ERK1/2 signaling is responsible for distinct aspects of the proinflammatory transformation, such as matrix metalloprotease 9/13 expression, invasion and proliferation. Thus, WNT-5A-induced and G protein-dependent signaling to ERK1/2 is important for the regulation of proinflammatory responses in mouse primary microglia cells. We show for the first time that WNT-5A/G protein signaling mediates physiologically important processes in primary mammalian cells with natural receptor and G protein stochiometry. Consequently, WNT-5A emerges as an important means of astrocyte-microglia communication and we, therefore, suggest WNT-5A as a new player in neuroinflammatory conditions, such as neurodegenerative disease, hypoxia, stroke, injury and infection.Journal of Neuroinflammation 05/2012; 9:111. · 4.35 Impact Factor