Absorption and fluorescence spectra of the probe Hoechst 33258
ABSTRACT The steric and electronic structure and absorption spectra of the fluorophore Hoechst 33258 (I) and a number of model compounds in various protonated forms were calculated by the semi-empirical quantum chemical methods PM3 and CNDO/S. The low-frequency transition was shown to provide an increase in electron affinity of the imidazole rings. The fluorescence quenching of I in neutral aqueous solutions was suggested to result from the keto form (or bipolar structure), derived via proton transfer in the excited state of the dimer associate of I. The polar (approximately 10 D) fluorescence state of I due to intramolecular charge transfer is markedly sensitive to the polarity of the environment.
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ABSTRACT: Ensemble and single-molecule fluorescence measurements of 2'-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-[5-(4-methylpiperazine-1-yl) benzimidazo-2-yl]-benzimidazole (H-258)- calf thymus (CT) DNA complexes at various [H-258]/[DNA bp] ratios were performed to elucidate the binding of H-258 with DNA. Upon binding to double-stranded CT DNA (CT ds DNA) at a [H-258]/[DNA bp] ratio of 0.05 the relative fluorescence quantum yield, Phi(f), of H-258 increases from 0.02 to 0.58. The fluorescence decay can be fitted almost by a mono-exponential model with a lifetime of approximately 3.6 ns. This indicates that H-258 binds almost quantitatively in the minor groove of DNA at low [H-258]/[DNA bp] ratios. With increasing [H-258]/[DNA bp] ratios, e.g. 0.15 and 0.20, the fluorescence quantum yield of H-258 decreases to 0.28 and 0.19, respectively. Fitting of the fluorescence decays measured for higher [H-258]/[DNA bp] ratios reveals the presence of additional shorter fluorescence lifetime components in the range of 0.5-2.0 ns. Our results suggest that H-258 partially intercalates in G:C sequences at higher [H-258]/[DNA bp] ratios reflected by a lifetime component of 1.5-2 ns. In addition, stacking or adsorption of H-258 molecules on DNA occurs at higher [H-258]/[DNA bp] ratios. These molecules exhibit a short fluorescence lifetime of approximately 500 ps and are more exposed to the aqueous environment. Fluorescence transients of the intensity and lifetime of single H-258 CT ds DNA demonstrate that weakly (unspecific) bound H-258 molecules exhibit a shorter fluorescence lifetime and a strongly reduced photostability.Nucleic Acids Research 05/2003; 31(8):2178-86. · 8.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The complexes of Hoechst 33258 with poly[d(A-T)2], poly[d(I-C)2], and poly[d(G-C)2], and poly[d(G-m5C)2] were studied using linear dichroism, CD, and fluorescence spectroscopies. The Hoechst-poly[d(I-C)2] complex, in which there is no guanine amino group protruding in the minor groove, exhibits spectroscopic properties that are very similar to those of the Hoechst-poly[d(A-T)2] complex. When bound to both of these polynucleotides, Hoechst exhibits an average orientation angle of near 45 degrees relative to the DNA helix axis for the long-axis polarized low-energy transition, a relatively strong positive induced CD, and a strong increase in fluorescence intensity--leading us to conclude that this molecule also binds in the minor groove of poly[d(I-C)2]. By contrast, when bound to poly[d(G-C)2] and poly[d(G-m5C)2], Hoechst shows a distinctively different behavior. The strongly negative reduced linear dichroism in the ligand absorption region is consistent with a model in which part of the Hoechst chromophore is intercalculated between DNA bases. From the low drug:base ratio onset of excitonic effects in the CD and fluorescence emission spectra, it is inferred that another part of the Hoechst molecule may sit in the major groove of poly[d(G-C)2] and poly[d(G-m5C)2] and preferentially stacks into dimers, though this tendency is strongly reduced for the latter polynucleotide. Based on these results, the importance of the interactions of Hoechst with the exocyclic amino group of guanine and the methyl group of cytosine in determining the binding modes are discussed.Biopolymers 06/1996; 38(5):593-606. · 2.88 Impact Factor