Preparation and properties of chitosan/carbon nanotube nanocomposites using poly(styrene sulfonic acid)-modified CNTs

R&D Center for Membrane Technology and Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, #200, Chung-Pei Road, Chungli, Taoyuan 32023, Taiwan
Carbohydrate Polymers (Impact Factor: 4.07). 03/2009; 76(2):232-238. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2008.10.021

ABSTRACT Poly(styrene sulfonic acid)-functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT-PSSA), which was obtained with atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), was utilized in preparation of chitosan/CNT nanocomposites (CH/CNT-PSSA). Chemical linkages between chitosan and CNTs form in the nanocomposites through the reaction between the sulfuric acid groups of CNT-PSSA and the amino groups of chitosan, to warrant the homogenous dispersion of CNTs. The CH/CNT-PSSA nanocomposites were superior to the neat chitosan polymer in thermal and mechanical properties, water and solvent uptakes, bond water ratios, and electrical conductivity. The attractive property of the CH/CNT-PSSA nanocomposites also implied their application potentials for separation membranes and sensor electrodes.

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    • "Different types of material as micro and nanofillers, such as silica, hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphate, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) [1] and organo modified montmorillonite (OMMT), have been studied for reinforcing chitosan [11]. Of these, CNTs and OMMT have shown potential for reinforcing and enhancing the thermal stability of chitosan membranes [1] [2] [12] [13]. Nevertheless, it is well known that the synthesis and functionalization processes of CNTs are complicated and costly [14]. "
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    • "Tailoring external surface of nanoparticles with various chemical modifications [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] and designing molecular-level MMMs using cyclodextrin have been proposed [30] [31]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The unique geometry and extraordinary mechanical, electrical, and thermal conductivity properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) make them ideal candidates as functional fillers for polymeric materials. In this paper we review the advances in both thermoset and thermoplastic CNT composites. The various processing methods used in polymer/CNT composite preparation; solution mixing, in-situ polymerization, electrospinning, and melt blending, are discussed. The role of surface functionalization, including ‘grafting to’ and ‘grafting from’ using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), radical addition–fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT), and ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) in aiding dispersion of CNTs in polymers and interfacial stress transfer is highlighted. In addition the effect of CNT type, loading, functionality and alignment on electrical and rheological percolation is summarized. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of both Raman spectroscopy and oscillatory plate rheology as tools to characterize the extent of dispersion of CNTs in polymer matrices. We conclude by briefly discussing the potential applications of polymer/CNT composites and highlight the challenges that remain so that the unique properties of CNTs can be optimally translated to polymer matrices.
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