A review on energy scenario and sustainable energy in Indonesia

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (Impact Factor: 5.9). 05/2012; 16(4):2316-2328. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2011.12.007

ABSTRACT The global energy consumption is likely to grow faster than the population growth. The fuel consumption was growing from 6630 million tons of oil equivalents (Mtoe) in 1980 to 11,163 Mtoe in 2009. This projected consumption will increase 1.5% per year until 2030 and reach 16,900 Mtoe and the main drivers of this growth are mostly developing countries in Asia. Indonesia is one of the developing countries and energy supply is an important factor for all-around development. The country's energy consumption still depends on non-renewable energy such as crude oil, coal and natural gas as sources of energy. Utilization of fossil fuel continuously contributes to huge amount of greenhouse gases emission that leads to climate change. Facing such an unfavorable situation, the government of Indonesia prioritizes on energy supply securities by diversification of energy resources. The energy mixes in Indonesia based on five main resources; these are crude oil, natural gas, coal, hydropower, and renewable energy. Although the country encourages utilizing renewable energy, the contribution is only around 3%. Considering natural condition and geography, this country is blessed with great potential of renewable energy such as solar energy, wind energy, micro hydro and biomass energy. Noting the potential of renewable and sustainable energy resources in the country, the government must pay more attention on how to utilize it. Many efforts have been done to promote renewable energy such as to create energy policy and regulations, yet it still did not give any satisfactory result. Government, non-government agencies and the public should take a more proactive step to promote and use renewable energy in order to achieve the secure and environmentally sustainable energy resources.

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    • "Turkey) see exploitable opportunities in renewable energies that can satisfy the increasing energy demand of their growing economies (Hasan et al. 2012; Pereira et al. 2012; Byrnes et al. 2013; Goldemberg et al. 2013; Kumar "
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    ABSTRACT: An important aim of the European Union and national governments all over the world is to increase the contribution of renewable energies to the total energy supply. According to numerous estimates, the proportion of renewable energy sources of the global energy consumption could reach 15 to 20 percent by the middle of the 21th century; moreover the total amount of investments in renewable energy sources could be 2.5 times greater than the current level. This increased investment is definitely achievable due to the significant interventions of governments. However, the decrease of the share of fossil fuels in the global energy consumption seems rather doubtful because it partly depends on how the future visions of transnational oil companies handle renewables. In this paper, I examine the characteristics of the renewable energy investments of the Supermajors, i.e., the largest public oil companies. I also examine how their communications regarding renewables meet reality. The results indicate that certain companies firmly deny investments in the renewable energy sector (because of the lower-than-expected returns), while others superficially address them, and that there is only one company that has globally important renewable energy businesses.
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    • "As explained previously, biodiesel mixed with diesel oil can substitute a part of fossil fuel and be applied to diesel engine without any technical modification. Furthermore, biodiesel does not emit black exhaust smoke and could be considered as 'less bad' for health than current diesel, and is biodegradable and environmental friendly (Hasan et al, 2012). For Rosillo-Calle & Hall (1992) biomass has not only a positive impact on the atmosphere (avoidance of SO2 and NOx emissions) but it is also a widely and easily available fuel source. "
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    ABSTRACT: Indonesia is facing an energy challenge where energy security, energy poverty and climate change issues are competing with others. To address these issues, last decades have been characterized by a growing interest for biomass energy. This document gives an overview of the actual situation, focusing on the energy and biomass profile of the country, as well as its potentials and threats. Indonesia is heavily dependent on fossil fuel, especially oil. Despite large natural resources of fossil energy, the supply kept not pace with the growing demand for energy. Important amount of biomass could be used to produce different form of energy and at the same time solving energy security and poverty issues, as well as contributing to climate change mitigation. In addition, bioenergy could address socioeconomic and environmental issues. However, if the wrong direction is taken, its development could lead to a grey picture.
    • "Starting in the early nineties, a number of efforts to disseminate cleaner brick burning technologies have failed [6] [7] [8] [9]. A huge amount of energy have been wasted in this process where energy is the most sensitive and important issue for the Asian countries as well as for the whole world [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15]. "
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