A review on energy scenario and sustainable energy in Indonesia

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (Impact Factor: 5.63). 01/2012; 16(4):2316-2328. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2011.12.007

ABSTRACT The global energy consumption is likely to grow faster than the population growth. The fuel consumption was growing from 6630 million tons of oil equivalents (Mtoe) in 1980 to 11,163 Mtoe in 2009. This projected consumption will increase 1.5% per year until 2030 and reach 16,900 Mtoe and the main drivers of this growth are mostly developing countries in Asia. Indonesia is one of the developing countries and energy supply is an important factor for all-around development. The country's energy consumption still depends on non-renewable energy such as crude oil, coal and natural gas as sources of energy. Utilization of fossil fuel continuously contributes to huge amount of greenhouse gases emission that leads to climate change. Facing such an unfavorable situation, the government of Indonesia prioritizes on energy supply securities by diversification of energy resources. The energy mixes in Indonesia based on five main resources; these are crude oil, natural gas, coal, hydropower, and renewable energy. Although the country encourages utilizing renewable energy, the contribution is only around 3%. Considering natural condition and geography, this country is blessed with great potential of renewable energy such as solar energy, wind energy, micro hydro and biomass energy. Noting the potential of renewable and sustainable energy resources in the country, the government must pay more attention on how to utilize it. Many efforts have been done to promote renewable energy such as to create energy policy and regulations, yet it still did not give any satisfactory result. Government, non-government agencies and the public should take a more proactive step to promote and use renewable energy in order to achieve the secure and environmentally sustainable energy resources.

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    ABSTRACT: Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.
    TheScientificWorldJournal. 01/2014; 2014:197136.
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    ABSTRACT: Renewable energy such as photovoltaic energy can be used in Indonesia for electrification in remote islands because of the abundant potential of solar energy. Indonesia has high potential in fisheries. One of the problems in fish production is inadequate cold room or storage facilities. Electrification ratio in Indonesia is 73 % means that 37 % of populations in Indonesia do not have electric supply. The result of this research is the design of cold storage system powered photovoltaic system to give alternative solution in solving the problems. Modeling system of cold storage powered photovoltaic system is made by characterizing cooling load toward manufacturing cost. Linear regression model has high error fluctuation so it must be optimized by using other models. Polynomial regression model is used to make mathematical modeling in characterization of cooling load and manufacturing cost. To reduce error fluctuation, polynomial regression model is divided into three parts. The highest values of error fluctuation are from 4,74 kW to 8,32 kW. The average of error in this range is 0,25 with standard deviation 0,17. The lowest values of error fluctuation are from 8,75 kW to 10,47 kW. The average of error in this range is 0,03 with standard deviation 0,0044.. Decision support program by using Visual Basic and MySQL is made to visualize the mathematical model become more user friendly. The conclusion is polynomial regression model has better results in characterizing cooling load toward manufacturing cost than linear regression model has.
    Thermofluid, Yogyakarta; 08/2013
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    ABSTRACT: The development of a country in terms of infrastructure and economic consequences of increasing energy consumption in society. Government‘s burden in supplying electricity for people must be addressed with appropriate and long term action, and the development of energy village can be a choice which should be taken. First step of this development is modeling of energy village which many aspects should be considered. With establishment of energy village, not only benefit in terms of burden of government in the provision of energy distribution, also economic and social also come up then Indonesia has become energy independent country.
    Energy Procedia 01/2014; 47:76–84.


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May 23, 2014