The water solubility of crude oils and petroleum products
ABSTRACT Solubilities are reported for 42 crude oil and petroleum products in water as a function of temperature, salinity, oil weathering and water-to-oil volume ratio. The applicability of several analytical techniques (purge-and-trap gas chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, and fluorescence) for the determination of dissolved hydrocarbon concentrations is discussed critically. The effect of water-to-oil volume ratio on the apparent solubility of oils in water is discussed in detail.
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ABSTRACT: Light and middle atmospheric distillate petroleum substances are blended to produce fuels used in transportation and heating. These substances represent the majority by volume of crude oil refined products in the United States. The goal of this research was to develop biodegradability and aquatic toxicity data for four substances; heavy, straight-run naphtha (HSRN), hydro-desulfurized kerosene (HDK), hydro-cracked gas oil (HCGO), and catalytic-cracked gas oil (CCGO). Ready biodegradability tests demonstrated rapid and extensive microbial oxidation of these test substances, indicating a lack of persistence in the aquatic environment. Differences in biodegradation patterns reflected compositional differences in the constituent hydrocarbons. Results of aquatic toxicity tests on alga, cladocera, and fish demonstrated that toxicity was greatest for catalytic-cracked gas oil, which contained a high proportion of aromatic hydrocarbons. Aromatic hydrocarbons are more soluble, and hence more bioavailable, resulting in higher toxicity. When expressed on the basis of loading rates, acute toxicity values (LL/EL50) ranged between 0.3 and 5.5 mg L−1 for all three species, while chronic no-observed-effect loading rates (NOELR) ranged between 0.05 and 0.64 mg L−1. PETROTOX estimates for acute and chronic toxicity ranged from 0.18 to 2.3 mg L−1 and 0.06 to 0.14 mg L−1, respectively, which were generally more conservative than experimental data.Chemosphere 08/2014; 108:1–9. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Partition of organic solutes between oils and water in the subsurface is an important geochemical process occurring during petroleum migration and reservoiring, during water washing, and during petroleum production. Currently no data exists on the quantitative aspects of the partition process at subsurface conditions for solutes such as phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons which are major components of both oils and waters. We have constructed an equilibration device for oils and waters based on flow injection analysis principles to measure partition coefficients of alkylphenols in crude oil/brine systems under reservoir conditions. Concentrations of C0C2 alkylphenols in waters and solid phase extracts of crude oils produced in the device were determined by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (RP-HPLC-ED), partition coefficients being measured as a function of pressure (25–340 bar), temperature (25–150°C), and water salinity (0–100,000 mg/L sodium chloride) for a variety of oils. Partition coefficients for all compounds decreased with increasing temperature, increased with water salinity and crude oil bulk NSO content, and showed little change with varying pressure. These laboratory measurements, determined under conditions close to those typically encountered in petroleum reservoirs, suggest temperature, water salinity, and crude oil bulk NSO content will have important influence on oil-water partition processes in the subsurface during migration and water washing.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 10/1997; 61(20):4393-4402. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study, PAH bioavailability was assessed in creosote-contaminated soil following bioremediation in order to determine potential human health exposure to residual PAHs from incidental soil ingestion. Following 1000days of enhanced natural attenuation (ENA), a residual PAH concentration of 871±8mgkg(-1) (∑16 USEPA priority PAHs in the <250μm soil particle size fraction) was present in the soil. However, when bioavailability was assessed to elucidate potential human exposure using an in vivo mouse model, the upper-bound estimates of PAH absolute bioavailability were in excess of 65% irrespective of the molecular weight of the PAH. These results indicate that a significant proportion of the residual PAH fraction following ENA may be available for absorption following soil ingestion. In contrast, when PAH bioavailability was estimated/predicted using an in vitro surrogate assay (FOREhST assay) and fugacity modelling, PAH bioavailability was up to 2000 times lower compared to measured in vivo values depending on the methodology used.Science of The Total Environment 12/2013; 473-474C:147-154. · 3.16 Impact Factor