The water solubility of crude oils and petroleum products
ABSTRACT Solubilities are reported for 42 crude oil and petroleum products in water as a function of temperature, salinity, oil weathering and water-to-oil volume ratio. The applicability of several analytical techniques (purge-and-trap gas chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, and fluorescence) for the determination of dissolved hydrocarbon concentrations is discussed critically. The effect of water-to-oil volume ratio on the apparent solubility of oils in water is discussed in detail.
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ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hyftovst ond (PAH) are nearly ubiqutous contaminants of freshwater and marine sediments. Sediment PAHs are derived from combustion of organic matter, fossil fuels, and biosynthesis by microbes. Pyrogenic PAHs, particularly those associated with combustion particles (soot), have a low accessibility and bioavailability in sediments. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with petroleum, creosote, or coal tar in sediments may have a moderate accessibility/bioavailability, particularly if the PAHs are part of a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) phase that is in contact with sediment pore water. We present a method for estimating the hazard of complex PAH assemblage in sediments to benthic organisms. Concentrations of all PAHs in sediment pore water are estimated by an equilibrium partitioning model relative to concentrations in bulk sediment. Predicted log Koc values can be used for predicting sediment/water partitioning of petrogenic PAH, but empirically derived log Kd values are needed to predict partitioning of pyrogenic PAH. A hazard quotient (HQ) for each PAH is calculated as the ratio of the estimated concentration in pore water to the chronic toxicity of the PAH determined by a log Kow/toxicity model. Hazard quotients for all PAH in a sample are summed to produce a hazard index (HI), which is a measure of the worst-case estimated hazard of the sediment PAH to benthic organisms. The results of this study show that the integration of HI results with PAH source data provides insights into the causes of sediment toxicity that are useful in an ecological risk assessment.Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 02/2005; 1(1):22-33. DOI:10.1897/IEAM_2004a-016.1
- Advances in Environmental Research 05/2000; 4:141-145. DOI:10.1016/S1093-0191(00)00018-6
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ABSTRACT: The acute effects of both untreated and dispersant-treated Prudhoe Bay crude oil on the early life-stages of three marine species were investigated. Identification of which water-accommodated fraction (undispersed or chemically dispersed) was considered "more toxic" was dependent on species, time, and endpoint (and by inference, test protocol). Generally, the data showed that at roughly equivalent hydrocarbon concentrations untreated oil solutions resulted in higher initial effects (< 1 h) in mysid and topsmelt tests, whereas dispersed oil solutions elicited higher levels of larval abnormality in abalone tests and higher levels of mortality in mysid tests. While differences in test protocols existed among the species tested, topsmelt were the most sensitive species to untreated oil solutions, with mysids being most sensitive to dispersed oil solutions.Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 02/1998; 34(2):177-87. DOI:10.1007/s002449900302 · 1.96 Impact Factor