The water solubility of crude oils and petroleum products
ABSTRACT Solubilities are reported for 42 crude oil and petroleum products in water as a function of temperature, salinity, oil weathering and water-to-oil volume ratio. The applicability of several analytical techniques (purge-and-trap gas chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, and fluorescence) for the determination of dissolved hydrocarbon concentrations is discussed critically. The effect of water-to-oil volume ratio on the apparent solubility of oils in water is discussed in detail.
SourceAvailable from: Marc A. Mills
Technical Report: Technical Resource Document on Monitored Natural Recovery[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Description: In 2005, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a document entitled Contaminated Sediment Remediation Guidance for Hazardous Waste Sites (EPA, 2005), which provides technical and policy guidance for project managers and teams making risk management decisions for contaminated sediment sites. This EPA guidance document addresses both in-situ and ex-situ remedies for contaminated sediment sites, including, among others, dredging and excavation, in-situ capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR). This report is a Technical Resource Document (TRD) on MNR intended to function as a complement to Chapter 4 on MNR in the aforementioned EPA guidance document. As such, the purpose of this TRD is to provide detailed information on field-scale methodologies and approaches that can be used to measure and/or predict natural processes that contribute to the reduction of risks to humand and ecological receptors at contaminated sediment sites. Although the document includes information that may be useful in developing a site-specific protocol, it is not a protocol or guidance document. The goals of this TRD are to: 1) identify and describe natural physical, chemical, and biological processes normally associated with contaminated sediments, and 2) discuss techniques and methods for quantifying and assessing the rates and extent of those processes that may be occurring at a particular site. The number and types of measurement and analytical methodologies used for evaluating MNR at contaminated sediment sites will be influenced by the size and complexity of the site, project resources, available data, and the scope of decisions to be made. This TRD consists of five technical sections that address different facets of MNR, including an introduction and overview of MNR (Section 1); a discussion on sedimentation and contaminant isolation (Section 2); consideration of the fate and transport of organic (Section 3) and inorganic (Section 4) contaminants in sediments; and a description of a six-point process for developing and implementing a long-term monitoring plan to evaluate and forecase MNR progress (Section 5). A comprehensive set of References for the five technical sections is provided (Section 6). Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this technical resource document (TRD) is to provide detailed information on field-scale methodologies and approaches that can be used to measure and/or predict natural processes that contribute to the reduction of risks to human and ecological receptors at contaminated sediment sites. The goals of this TRD are to: 1) identify and describe natural physical, chemical, and biological processes normally associated with contaminated sediments, and 2) discuss techniques and methods for quantifying and assessing the rates and extent of those processes that may be occurring at a particular site.
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ABSTRACT: Light and middle atmospheric distillate petroleum substances are blended to produce fuels used in transportation and heating. These substances represent the majority by volume of crude oil refined products in the United States. The goal of this research was to develop biodegradability and aquatic toxicity data for four substances; heavy, straight-run naphtha (HSRN), hydro-desulfurized kerosene (HDK), hydro-cracked gas oil (HCGO), and catalytic-cracked gas oil (CCGO). Ready biodegradability tests demonstrated rapid and extensive microbial oxidation of these test substances, indicating a lack of persistence in the aquatic environment. Differences in biodegradation patterns reflected compositional differences in the constituent hydrocarbons. Results of aquatic toxicity tests on alga, cladocera, and fish demonstrated that toxicity was greatest for catalytic-cracked gas oil, which contained a high proportion of aromatic hydrocarbons. Aromatic hydrocarbons are more soluble, and hence more bioavailable, resulting in higher toxicity. When expressed on the basis of loading rates, acute toxicity values (LL/EL50) ranged between 0.3 and 5.5 mg L−1 for all three species, while chronic no-observed-effect loading rates (NOELR) ranged between 0.05 and 0.64 mg L−1. PETROTOX estimates for acute and chronic toxicity ranged from 0.18 to 2.3 mg L−1 and 0.06 to 0.14 mg L−1, respectively, which were generally more conservative than experimental data.Chemosphere 08/2014; 108:1–9. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.02.028 · 3.50 Impact Factor