Determination of sialic acid and gangliosides in biological samples and dairy products: A review
ABSTRACT Gangliosides are sphingolipids containing one or more moieties of sialic acid in their structure. Both gangliosides and sialic acid are bioactive compounds related to animal physiology. Due to their biological relevance, analytical methods adapted to each type of matrix have been developed over time. The present study reviews the main methods applied to the analysis of sialic acid and gangliosides in biological samples and dairy products.
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ABSTRACT: Genomic selection relies on the whole-genome evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), some of them linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL). Although statistical methodology has been developed for the analysis of genomic data, little is known about the performance of SNP association studies when trying to capture variability from QTL mutations of different ages. Within this context, the influence of mutation age was analyzed under a simulation design, assuming presence or absence of selection on mutant QTL alleles. Focusing on a unique chromosome with a single QTL located in the proximal end, the performance of the genomic selection analyses was evaluated in terms of standardized mean square error (MSE). For all simulation scenarios, MSE was highest for the youngest mutations. The MSE was progressively reduced with mutation age under random mating and soft selection, and reached its maximum performance with the oldest mutations. On the other hand, moderate and strong selection caused a quick reduction of the MSE from youngest mutations to mutations arising in generations 920 to 939, thus resulting in a progressive increase for older mutations. In both cases, very young mutations escaped from genomic selection analyses, releasing a relevant amount of genetic variability that could not be captured and used in genomic selection programs. This demonstrated the need for new analytical approaches to model relevant and recent sources of variation; if captured, these young mutations could substantially contribute to current breeding schemes.Journal of Dairy Science 08/2011; 94(8):4224-9. · 2.57 Impact Factor
Article: Ganglioside Biochemistry[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids. They occur especially on the cellular surfaces of neuronal cells, where they form a complex pattern, but are also found in many other cell types. The paper provides a general overview on their structures, occurrence, and metabolism. Key functional, biochemical, and pathobiochemical aspects are summarized.ISRN Biochemistry. 01/2012; 2012:506160.
Article: Lipidomics of Glycosphingolipids[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) contain one or more sugars that are attached to a sphingolipid moiety, usually to a ceramide, but in rare cases also to a sphingoid base. A large structural heterogeneity results from differences in number, identity, linkage, and anomeric configuration of the carbohydrate residues, and also from structural differences within the hydrophobic part. GSLs form complex cell-type specific patterns, which change with the species, the cellular differentiation state, viral transformation, ontogenesis, and oncogenesis. Although GSL structures can be assigned to only a few series with a common carbohydrate core, their structural variety and the complex pattern are challenges for their elucidation and quantification by mass spectrometric techniques. We present a general overview of the application of lipidomics for GSL determination. This includes analytical procedures and instrumentation together with recent correlations of GSL molecular species with human diseases. Difficulties such as the structural complexity and the lack of standard substances for complex GSLs are discussed.Metabolites. 01/2012; 2(1):134-164.