Effect of colchicine on transport of amine storage granules in sympathetic nerves of rat
ABSTRACT Local application of colchicine to adrenergic ganglia and axons seems to interrupt the fast proximo-distal transport of amine storage granules. This effect may be due to destruction of neurotubules, which possibly take part in granular transport.
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ABSTRACT: Galanin was first identified 30 years ago as a "classic neuropeptide," with actions primarily as a modulator of neurotransmission in the brain and peripheral nervous system. Other structurally-related peptides-galanin-like peptide and alarin-with diverse biologic actions in brain and other tissues have since been identified, although, unlike galanin, their cognate receptors are currently unknown. Over the last two decades, in addition to many neuronal actions, a number of nonneuronal actions of galanin and other galanin family peptides have been described. These include actions associated with neural stem cells, nonneuronal cells in the brain such as glia, endocrine functions, effects on metabolism, energy homeostasis, and paracrine effects in bone. Substantial new data also indicate an emerging role for galanin in innate immunity, inflammation, and cancer. Galanin has been shown to regulate its numerous physiologic and pathophysiological processes through interactions with three G protein-coupled receptors, GAL1, GAL2, and GAL3, and signaling via multiple transduction pathways, including inhibition of cAMP/PKA (GAL1, GAL3) and stimulation of phospholipase C (GAL2). In this review, we emphasize the importance of novel galanin receptor-specific agonists and antagonists. Also, other approaches, including new transgenic mouse lines (such as a recently characterized GAL3 knockout mouse) represent, in combination with viral-based techniques, critical tools required to better evaluate galanin system physiology. These in turn will help identify potential targets of the galanin/galanin-receptor systems in a diverse range of human diseases, including pain, mood disorders, epilepsy, neurodegenerative conditions, diabetes, and cancer. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.Pharmacological reviews 01/2015; 67(1):118-175. · 18.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Summary 1.The purpose of this study was to investigate the coexistence ofγ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and leu-enkephalin in single neurons from the corpus striatum.2.Monolayer cell cultures, started from newborn rat corpus striatum, were grown in serum-free medium and examined using GABA autoradiography and leu-enkephalin immunocytochemistry in a double-label protocol.3.Examples of cells were found which were positive for one or the other neurotransmitter or for neither transmitter, but not for both. Furthermore, cells which appear similar by morphological criteria alone differed in transmitter specificity.4.We conclude that the two transmitters tested are not localized within single cells and that morphology alone is inadequate to identify functional cell classes in this area.Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 09/1983; 3(3):255-262. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The biosynthesis, storage, and release of specific proteins in the bag cells ofAplysia californica were studied. In the soma, a 25000 dalton precursor molecule is synthesized, and is processed to a 6000 dalton protein, which in turn is converted into a=3000 dalton protein (Fig. 1). Pulse-chase experiments show that the lower molecular weight products disappear from the cell body after 20 hrs of chase (Fig.1 B), but that this disappearance can be blocked by colchicine (Fig.1 C), an inhibitor of axoplasmic flow. The primary stored form of low molecular weight proteins in the bag cell soma is 6000 daltons with a minor peak at =3000 daltons (Fig. 2A), and it is these protein classes which disappear with release of hormones from the bag cells (Fig. 2B and C). The proteins which are released from the neurohemal area by potassium depolarization are heterogeneous, and are composed of 2 major peaks at 6000 and =3000 daltons, and 1 minor peak at 12000 daltons (Fig. 3B). The release of these proteins was dependent upon the presence of calcium ion. A hypothetical model of the intracellular mechanisms interposed between biosynthesis and release of the proteins is presented (Fig. 4), and the biological significance of the data is discussed.Journal of Comparative Physiology B 01/1975; 100(4):283-295. · 2.53 Impact Factor