Frostbite injuries treated in the Helsinki area from 1995 to 2002
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: : Exposure to cold results in frostbite, superficial or deeper tissue damage. In severe frostbites, amputations are life-saving but diminish quality of life (QOL). METHODS: : Retrospective study was performed. RAND 36- questionnaire was administered to assess QOL. Our aim was to investigate risk factors and adjustment to everyday life of hospitalized patients. RESULTS: : 92 frostbites in 42 patients were recorded. One third of the patients were chronic alcoholics. Age and temperature were statistically significant factors for unfavorable outcome. 20% of patients required secondary reconstructive procedures. One-third reported their emotional well-being very poor. Half had limitations in social life. CONCLUSIONS: : Hospitalized cases of frostbite are rare. Anti-social behavior increases the risk in general, and patients present with complicated problems similar to those encountered in burns victims. We recommend that frostbite patients requiring hospital attendance are treated in specialized units, where sufficient expertise for acute as well as reconstructive surgery is available.
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ABSTRACT: One of the earliest responses to cold exposure is decreased blood flow to the extremities. This can occur simply with facial cooling or by direct cooling of the hands and feet. The sympathetic response that drives this decrease in blood flow is maximal with whole-body cooling. This decreased blood flow limits the heat delivery to the extremities, and subsequent tissue cooling is associated with a decrease in thermal comfort and physical performance and an increased risk of peripheral cold injury. Methods are needed to increase extremity blood flow to minimise these adverse effects. Peripheral blood flow can be altered several ways. These can be classified into 3 broad categories, physiological (cold-induced vasodilation, CIVD), behavioural (increased exercise intensity), and technological (external heating). The purpose of this review is to summarise the role of CIVD, exercise, and external heating on dilating peripheral tissues and preventing injury during cold exposure.
Injury Extra 11/2011; 42(11):192-194. DOI:10.1016/j.injury.2011.07.003
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ABSTRACT: The paper deals with the problem of the addressee-oriented information in the legal discourse. The model of the addressee is treated as a unit consisting of two levels, that is cognitive and socio-situational. The typology of the addressee is given.