With the aim to develop nutritionally and functionally improved biscuits, standard wheat flour based recipe was supplemented with inulin (Raftilin) (10.5%) in combination with one of the following raw materials: soy flour, amaranth, carob (24.5%), apple fibre or oat fibre (16.5%). Various nutritional parameters such as proteins, fat, ash, carbohydrates total minerals, protein digestibility and energy value were determined in modified biscuits. Dietary fibre content, polyphenolic content and bioavailability and antioxidative activity were also assessed in the view of estimating the functionality of investigated samples. In order to evaluate the impact of technological procedure (baking) on analysed parameters, all experiments were conducted in dough samples as well. Supplementation with soy flour resulted in significant increase (p < 0.05) in protein content and digestibility (from 10.04 to 14.49 mg/100 g and from 68.9% to 81.5%, respectively). The increase of total dietary fibre content in relation to the reference sample ranged from 30.9% (sample with amaranth) to 130.6% (sample enriched with oat fibre). Best results regarding total phenolic content and antioxidative activity were achieved by incorporation of carob and apple fibre into the reference sample. Supplementation with inulin resulted in significant decrease of the total energy value of modified biscuits (from 445 to 412 kcal/100 g dry matter).
"Bound phenols were extracted according to Vitali et al. (2009) with some modifications. After free phenols extraction, the residues were combined with 20 mL of methanol/HCl conc (10:1) mixtures and placed in a water bath at 80 °C for 24 h and then cooled at room temperature. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the changes in phenolic composition, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tarhanas supplemented with oat flour (OF) at the levels of 20-100% (w/w) after three drying treatments (sun-, oven-, and microwave drying) were investigated. A total of seventeen phenolic standards have been screened in tarhanas, and the most abundant flavonol and phenolic acid compounds were kaempferol (23.62 mg/g) and 3-hydroxy-4-metoxy cinnamic acid (9.60 mg/g). The total phenolic content amount gradually increased with the addition of OF to tarhana, but decidedly higher total phenolic content was found in samples oven dried at 55 °C as compared with other methods. The microwave- and oven dried tarhana samples showed higher TEACDPPH and TEACABTS values than those dried with the other methods, respectively, in higher OF amounts. Consequently, oven- and microwave-drying can be recommended to retain the highest for phenolic compounds as well as maximal antioxidant capacity in OF supplemented tarhana samples.
"Inulin and inulin-type fructans are recognized as soluble dietary fiber (Roberfroid 2005). The use of inulin as prebiotic and fat-replacing ingredient in breadmaking (Peressini and Sensidoni 2009, Poinot et al. 2010) and in cookie formulations (Hempel et al. 2007, Vitali et al. 2009) were reported. "
"The antioxidant properties of PP and carotenoids come from their ability to link free radicals that easily attack unsaturated fatty acids present in cell membranes, causing peroxidation, decreased permeation and damage of membrane proteins, leading to cellular inactivation (Ubando-Rivera, Navarro- Ocana, & Valdivia-López, 2005). Numerous studies have used fruits and other fiber sources in bakery products, either supplied as commercial DF (Grigelmo-Miguel, Carreras-Boladeras, & Martin-Belloso, 2001; Vitali, Dragojević, & Šebečić, 2009) or DF derived from by-products of plant food processing (Ajila et al., 2008; Stojceska, Ainsworth, Plunkett, İbanoğlu, & İbanoğlu, 2008; Sudha, Baskaran, & Leelavathi, 2007). Mango peel powder from mango pulp processing was used in a soft dough biscuit formulation which was found to contain 51.2% DF (approximately 19% soluble DF and 32% insoluble DF) (Ajila et al., 2008). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wheat flour and cane sugar were partially substituted (50 and 75%) by a mango-processing by-product (MPB) as an added-value food ingredient in muffins. Their sensory analysis, chemical composition, antioxidant activity and in vitro starch hydrolysis properties were studied. Sensory analysis showed statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between control and muffins 75% MPB substituted level (p < 0.05) with the highest score. Proximate analysis revealed that muffins substituted with MPB had significantly (p < 0.05) higher moisture, ash, soluble, insoluble and total indigestible fraction contents but lower total soluble carbohydrates and available starch contents than a non-substituted (control) muffin. Total soluble polyphenol (TSP) content increased about three times (from 1.86 to 5.36 g GAE/100 g dw) with MPB substitution. Chlorogenic, caffeic, gallic, hydroxycinnamic and ferulic acids were identified as major TSP. Muffins with MPB, exhibited better antioxidant properties (104.0 to 108.5 μmol TE/g dw for DPPH assay and 34.1 to 19.1 mmol TE/g dw for FRAP assay) than the control formulation. The presence of high phenolic and insoluble indigestible fraction contents, which may be responsible of the lower rate of starch hydrolysis observed in muffins prepared with MPB, might modulate the postprandial glucose response in vivo. MPB may be used as an ingredient in foods with add-value with potential health-promoting features, besides providing a solution to the environmental problems associated with the disposal of mango by-products.
Food Research International 03/2015; 73. DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2015.03.004 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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