Effects of incorporation of integral raw materials and dietary fibre on the selected nutritional and functional properties of biscuits
ABSTRACT With the aim to develop nutritionally and functionally improved biscuits, standard wheat flour based recipe was supplemented with inulin (Raftilin) (10.5%) in combination with one of the following raw materials: soy flour, amaranth, carob (24.5%), apple fibre or oat fibre (16.5%). Various nutritional parameters such as proteins, fat, ash, carbohydrates total minerals, protein digestibility and energy value were determined in modified biscuits. Dietary fibre content, polyphenolic content and bioavailability and antioxidative activity were also assessed in the view of estimating the functionality of investigated samples. In order to evaluate the impact of technological procedure (baking) on analysed parameters, all experiments were conducted in dough samples as well. Supplementation with soy flour resulted in significant increase (p < 0.05) in protein content and digestibility (from 10.04 to 14.49 mg/100 g and from 68.9% to 81.5%, respectively). The increase of total dietary fibre content in relation to the reference sample ranged from 30.9% (sample with amaranth) to 130.6% (sample enriched with oat fibre). Best results regarding total phenolic content and antioxidative activity were achieved by incorporation of carob and apple fibre into the reference sample. Supplementation with inulin resulted in significant decrease of the total energy value of modified biscuits (from 445 to 412 kcal/100 g dry matter).
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ABSTRACT: Polyphenols are abundant micronutrients in our diet, and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases is emerging. The health effects of polyphenols depend on the amount consumed and on their bioavailability. In this article, the nature and contents of the various polyphenols present in food sources and the influence of agricultural practices and industrial processes are reviewed. Estimates of dietary intakes are given for each class of polyphenols. The bioavailability of polyphenols is also reviewed, with particular focus on intestinal absorption and the influence of chemical structure (eg, glycosylation, esterification, and polymerization), food matrix, and excretion back into the intestinal lumen. Information on the role of microflora in the catabolism of polyphenols and the production of some active metabolites is presented. Mechanisms of intestinal and hepatic conjugation (methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation), plasma transport, and elimination in bile and urine are also described. Pharmacokinetic data for the various polyphenols are compared. Studies on the identification of circulating metabolites, cellular uptake, intracellular metabolism with possible deconjugation, biological properties of the conjugated metabolites, and specific accumulation in some target tissues are discussed. Finally, bioavailability appears to differ greatly between the various polyphenols, and the most abundant polyphenols in our diet are not necessarily those that have the best bioavailability profile. A thorough knowledge of the bioavailability of the hundreds of dietary polyphenols will help us to identify those that are most likely to exert protective health effects.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 06/2004; 79(5):727-47. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Soluble fibers lower serum lipids, but are difficult to incorporate into products acceptable to consumers. We investigated the physiological effects of a concentrated oat beta-glucan on cardiovascular disease (CVD) endpoints in human subjects. We also compared the fermentability of concentrated oat beta-glucan with inulin and guar gum in a model intestinal fermentation system. Seventy-five hypercholesterolemic men and women were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: 6 grams/day concentrated oat beta-glucan or 6 grams/day dextrose (control). Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline, week 3, and week 6 and analyzed for total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, homocysteine and C-reactive protein (CRP). To estimate colonic fermentability, 0.5 g concentrated oat beta-glucan was incubated in a batch model intestinal fermentation system, using human fecal inoculum to provide representative microflora. Fecal donors were not involved with the beta-glucan feeding trial. Inulin and guar gum were also incubated in separate serum bottles for comparison. Oat beta-glucan produced significant reduction from baseline in total cholesterol (-0.3 +/- 0.1 mmol/L) and LDL cholesterol (-0.3 +/- 0.1 mmol/L), and the reduction in LDL cholesterol were significantly greater than in the control group (p = 0.03). Concentrated oat beta-glucan was a fermentable fiber and produced total SCFA and acetate concentrations similar to inulin and guar gum. Concentrated oat beta-glucan produced the highest concentrations of butyrate at 4, 8, and 12 hours. Six grams concentrated oat beta-glucan per day for six weeks significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol in subjects with elevated cholesterol, and the LDL cholesterol reduction was greater than the change in the control group. Based on a model intestinal fermentation, this oat beta-glucan was fermentable, producing higher amounts of butyrate than other fibers. Thus, a practical dose of beta-glucan can significantly lower serum lipids in a high-risk population and may improve colon health.Nutrition Journal 02/2007; 6:6. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several recent articles have reported a significant antioxidant capacity of cereal products, determined in methanolic and ethanolic extracts. The aim of this work was to conduct an assessment of the antioxidant capacity of cereals using both chemical and in vitro digestive enzymatic extraction of antioxidants. Ferric reducing power (FRAP) and free radical scavenging capacity (DPPH) methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity in wheat flour, bread, raw and boiled rice, wheat bran, and oat bran. The most efficient antioxidant extraction was achieved by using successively acidic methanol/water (50:50 v/v, pH 2) and acetone/water (70:30 v/v). The antioxidant capacity in these extracts ranged from 1.1 to 4.4 micromol Trolox/g dw. A significant amount of hydrolyzable phenolics with a high antioxidant capacity (from 5 to 108 micromol Trolox/g dw) was found in the residues of this aqueous-organic extraction. The antioxidant capacities of these nonextractable polyphenols are usually ignored in the literature, although they may have an antioxidant role in the gastrointestinal tract, especially after colonic fermentation, and may be fermentated to active metabolites. On the other hand, in vitro digestive enzymatic extracts obtained by enzymatic treatments that mimic conditions in the gastrointestinal tract showed that the amount of antioxidants released by the cereal matrix into the human intestine may be higher than the one that can be expected from measurements in the usual aqueous-organic extracts.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2005; 53(12):5036-40. · 2.91 Impact Factor