On the induction of depressed mood in the laboratory: Evaluation and comparison of the velten and musical procedures
ABSTRACT Two techniques for inducing depressed mood in the laboratory are described and evaluated. The Velten mood induction procedure has been shown to mimic the effects of naturally occurring depressed mood on a wide range of variables, some of which are unlikely to be susceptible to faking. It therefore appears that the Velten depression induction produces a state which is a good analogue of mild, naturally occurring retarded depression. However, between 30% and 50% of subjects fail to respond to the Velten. This makes it cumbersome for research purposes and raises questions about the generalizability of results obtained using it. The Musical mood induction procedure has been less extensively researched than the Velten. However the available evidence suggests that it also produces a good analogue of mild, naturally occurring retarded depression. In addition, it has the advantage that almost all subjects respond to it. Some commentators have taken the fact that the Velten procedure can induce depressed mood as evidence for the cognitive theory of depression. It is argued that this conclusion is invalid as it makes unwarranted assumptions about the strategies subjects use in order to change mood during the Velten procedure. Several practical points relating to the use of Velten and Musical induction procedures are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Sustained effects of emotion are well known in everyday experience. Surprisingly, such effects are seldom recorded in laboratory studies of the emotional Stroop task, in which participants name the color of emotion and neutral words. Color performance is more sluggish with emotion words than with neutral words, the emotional Stroop effect (ESE). The ESE is not sensitive to the order in which the two groups of words are presented, so the effect of exposure to emotion words does not extend to disrupting performance in a subsequent block with neutral words. We attribute this absence of a sustained effect to habituation engendered by excessive repetition of the experimental stimuli. In a series of four experiments, we showed that sustained effects do occur when habituation is removed, and we also showed that the massive exposure to negative stimuli within the ESE paradigm induces a commensurately negative mood. A novel perspective is offered, in which the ESE is considered a special case of mood induction.Attention Perception & Psychophysics 09/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of two basic emotions, happiness and sadness, on dance movement. A total of 32 adult participants were induced to feel emotional states of either happiness or sadness and then danced intuitively to an emotionally ‘neutral’ piece of music, composed specifically for the experiment. Based on an Effort-Shape analysis of body movement, full body movement was captured and seven different movement cues were examined, in order to explore whether differences in corporeal articulations between the happy and sad condition existed. Results revealed that in the happy condition, participants moved faster, with more acceleration, and made more expanded and more impulsive movements than in the sad condition. Results are discussed with respect to possible consequences for future research on human movement.Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 04/2013; · 1.77 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: A High-Resolution Spontaneous 3D Dynamic Facial Expression Database[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Facial expression is central to human experience. Its efficient and valid measurement is a challenge that automated facial image analysis seeks to address. Most publically available databases are limited to 2D static images or video of posed facial behavior. Because posed and un-posed (aka "spontaneous") facial expressions differ along several dimensions including complexity and timing, well-annotated video of un-posed facial behavior is needed. Moreover, because the face is a three-dimensional deformable object, 2D video may be insufficient, and therefore 3D video archives are needed. We present a newly developed 3D video database of spontaneous facial expressions in a diverse group of young adults. Well-validated emotion inductions were used to elicit expressions of emotion and paralinguistic communication. Frame-level ground-truth for facial actions was obtained using the Facial Action Coding System. Facial features were tracked in both 2D and 3D domains using both person-specific and generic approaches. The work promotes the exploration of 3D spatiotemporal features in subtle facial expression, better understanding of the relation between pose and motion dynamics in facial action units, and deeper understanding of naturally occurring facial action.FG 2013, Shanghai, China; 04/2013