On the induction of depressed mood in the laboratory: Evaluation and comparison of the velten and musical procedures
ABSTRACT Two techniques for inducing depressed mood in the laboratory are described and evaluated. The Velten mood induction procedure has been shown to mimic the effects of naturally occurring depressed mood on a wide range of variables, some of which are unlikely to be susceptible to faking. It therefore appears that the Velten depression induction produces a state which is a good analogue of mild, naturally occurring retarded depression. However, between 30% and 50% of subjects fail to respond to the Velten. This makes it cumbersome for research purposes and raises questions about the generalizability of results obtained using it. The Musical mood induction procedure has been less extensively researched than the Velten. However the available evidence suggests that it also produces a good analogue of mild, naturally occurring retarded depression. In addition, it has the advantage that almost all subjects respond to it. Some commentators have taken the fact that the Velten procedure can induce depressed mood as evidence for the cognitive theory of depression. It is argued that this conclusion is invalid as it makes unwarranted assumptions about the strategies subjects use in order to change mood during the Velten procedure. Several practical points relating to the use of Velten and Musical induction procedures are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Sustained effects of emotion are well known in everyday experience. Surprisingly, such effects are seldom recorded in laboratory studies of the emotional Stroop task, in which participants name the color of emotion and neutral words. Color performance is more sluggish with emotion words than with neutral words, the emotional Stroop effect (ESE). The ESE is not sensitive to the order in which the two groups of words are presented, so the effect of exposure to emotion words does not extend to disrupting performance in a subsequent block with neutral words. We attribute this absence of a sustained effect to habituation engendered by excessive repetition of the experimental stimuli. In a series of four experiments, we showed that sustained effects do occur when habituation is removed, and we also showed that the massive exposure to negative stimuli within the ESE paradigm induces a commensurately negative mood. A novel perspective is offered, in which the ESE is considered a special case of mood induction.Attention Perception & Psychophysics 09/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Qualitative differences between three types of media used for the laboratory induction of emotion (film clips, still images, and music) were explored using a clinical sample. The relative effectiveness at inducing negative emotion and the degree to which the induction elicited personally relevant experiences of emotion was examined. Nomothetic and idiographic media were included as stimuli, and comparisons were made across media types and selection type. Nomothetic and idiographic media did not significantly differ in levels of negative affect endorsed. Significant differences did emerge between media and selection types in degree of personal relevance, with nomothetic images rated lowest and idiographic music rated highest. Significant differences also emerged in ratings of positive affect, with greater personal relevance significantly related to greater positive affect. The qualitative differences in emotion induction procedures found in this study are discussed in relation to the potential importance of matching emotion induction procedures to specific emotion-related processes of interest when used for the laboratory study of emotion and psychopathology.Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 06/2011; 34(2). · 1.55 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: A High-Resolution Spontaneous 3D Dynamic Facial Expression Database[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Facial expression is central to human experience. Its efficient and valid measurement is a challenge that automated facial image analysis seeks to address. Most publically available databases are limited to 2D static images or video of posed facial behavior. Because posed and un-posed (aka "spontaneous") facial expressions differ along several dimensions including complexity and timing, well-annotated video of un-posed facial behavior is needed. Moreover, because the face is a three-dimensional deformable object, 2D video may be insufficient, and therefore 3D video archives are needed. We present a newly developed 3D video database of spontaneous facial expressions in a diverse group of young adults. Well-validated emotion inductions were used to elicit expressions of emotion and paralinguistic communication. Frame-level ground-truth for facial actions was obtained using the Facial Action Coding System. Facial features were tracked in both 2D and 3D domains using both person-specific and generic approaches. The work promotes the exploration of 3D spatiotemporal features in subtle facial expression, better understanding of the relation between pose and motion dynamics in facial action units, and deeper understanding of naturally occurring facial action.FG 2013, Shanghai, China; 04/2013