High temperature amperometric total NOx sensors with platinum-loaded zeolite Y electrodes

Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210-1185, USA
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 01/2007; DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2006.10.052

ABSTRACT An amperometic total-NOx sensor that integrates a Pt-loaded zeolite Y (PtY) catalyst for NOx equilibration with electrochemical oxidation of NO on an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte is described in this paper. PtY is found to be an effective catalyst for equilibrating mixtures of NO, O2 and NO2 at temperatures in excess of 400 °C. By applying a low anodic potential of 80 mV, the NO in the NOx equilibrated mixture can be oxidized at a Pt working electrode on the YSZ electrolyte at 500 °C. The current thus generated provides a measure of the total NOx in the gas stream and is the basis of the sensing measurements in this study. The PtY can be held separate from the YSZ or coated onto the YSZ as a film, the latter being more appropriate for the practical embodiment of this design. We demonstrate that this sensor exhibits total-NOx detection capability, a low NOx detection limit (<1 ppm), high NOx selectivity relative to CO and oxygen, and linear dependence on NOx concentration.

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    ABSTRACT: Simultaneous measurement of total NOx and O2 using two electrochemical methods are demonstrated using metal/metal oxide internal oxygen reference electrode-based sensors at high temperatures. The Pd/PdO-containing reference chamber was sealed within a stabilized zirconia superstructure by a high pressure/temperature plastic deformation bonding method exploiting grain boundary sliding between the ceramic components. Amperometric and potentiometric NOx sensing devices were assembled on the outside of the sensor. Pt-loaded zeolite Y was used to obtain total NOx capability. Both the amperometric and potentiometric type sensors showed total NOx response, with the potentiometric device showing better NOx/O2 signal stability and lower NOx–O2 cross-interference. Since these sensors do not require plumbing for reference air, there is more flexibility in the placement of such sensors in a combustion stream.
    Sensors and Actuators B-chemical - SENSOR ACTUATOR B-CHEM. 01/2008; 131(2):448-454.
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    ABSTRACT: Pt-loaded metal oxides [WO3/ZrO2, MOx/TiO2 (MOx = WO3, MoO3, V2O5), WO3 and TiO2] equipped with interdigital Au electrodes have been tested as a NOx (NO and NO2) gas sensor at 500 °C. The impedance value at 4 Hz was used as a sensing signal. Among the samples tested, Pt-WO3/TiO2 showed the highest sensor response magnitude to NO. The sensor was found to respond consistently and rapidly to change in concentration of NO and NO2 in the oxygen rich and moist gas mixture at 500 °C. The 90% response and 90% recovery times were as short as less than 5–10 s. The impedance at 4 Hz of the present device was found to vary almost linearly with the logarithm of NOx (NO or NO2) concentration from 10 to 570 ppm. Pt-WO3/TiO2 showed responses to NO and NO2 of the same algebraic sign and nearly the same magnitude, while Pt/WO3 and WO3/TiO2 showed higher response to NO than NO2. The impedance at 4 Hz in the presence of NO for Pt-WO3/TiO2 was almost equal at any O2 concentration examined (1–99%), while in the case of Pt/WO3 and WO3/TiO2 the impedance increased with the oxygen concentration. The features of Pt-WO3/TiO2 are favorable as a NOx sensor that can monitor and control the NOx concentration in automotive exhaust. The effect of WO3 loading of Pt-WO3/ZrO2-based sensor is studied to discuss the role of surface W-OH sites on the NOx sensing.
    Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 03/2008; 130(2):707–712.
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