Deforestation, distribution and development

Department of Economics, Adam Smith Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
Global Environmental Change (Impact Factor: 6). 10/2001; DOI: 10.1016/S0959-3780(00)00057-1
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT This paper investigates the role played by distributional factors in mediating the effects of growth and development on forest depletion in tropical developing countries. A key finding of the paper is that the distributional profile of a country significantly determines whether economic development will have either a positive or a negative effect on the rate of forest loss. In countries where levels of inequality are high, development will tend to exacerbate deforestation rates while in countries where distributional profiles are more egalitarian, the negative effects of growth and development on forest cover will be ameliorated.

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    ABSTRACT: We re-assessed the number of people and their purpose for entering a degraded dry forest in the plains of Tamil Nadu (South India) after 21 years. We found a drastic reduction in the number of people visiting the forest for the utilisation of forest products. These changes seem to be driven by the unavailability of local markets, agricultural programmes of local NGOs and better employment options than 21 years ago. The increasing human pressure on tropical forest is of worldwide concern but data on local level that support this trend are hardly available resulting in a lack of information for appropriate management strategies. The Palni Hills Conservation Council conducted a foot-path survey around the Kadavakurchi Reserved Forest (KRF), a degraded dry forest on a 10 km2 hillock at the foot of the Western Ghats in 1990/91. Interviews at 19 interview points were done simultaneously on one day a week over seven weeks, covering all seven week days. Numbers of people entering the forest were assessed, and they were asked about the importance of forest products for their livelihoods, as well as about forest-product collection patterns and marketing strategies. The survey was redone in 2012 during the same season as in 1991. We found an almost 40% decrease in the number of people entering the forest between 1991 and 2012, while amongst the different forest uses the number of people collecting fuel wood in the forest showed the strongest reduction of 90%. Heads of livestock entering the forest for grazing have increased by 25% mainly due to a rise in the number of goats. In interviews with local development institutions in the area, both government agencies and NGOs, as well as in 75 households we found that several employment generation and watershed development programs have been conducted over the last 21 years. Household respondents stated that alternative incomes triggered by agricultural and small-scale employment programmes underlay their reduced or abandoned utilisation of forest products. The main reason for the reduction in fuel wood collection, on the other hand, was stated by households as reduced availability of local markets.
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    ABSTRACT: Forest dynamics in the Latin American tropics now take directions that no one would have predicted a decade ago. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has dropped by over 80 percent, a pattern mimicked elsewhere in Amazonia, and is down by more than a third in Central America. Forest resurgence – increasing forest cover in inhabited landscapes or abandoned lands – is also expanding. In Latin America, woodland cover is increasing, at least for now, more than it is being lost. These dramatic shifts suggest quite profound and rapid transformations of agrarian worlds, and imply that previous models of understanding small-farmer dynamics merit significant review centering less on field agriculture and more on emergent forest regimes, and in many ways a new, increasingly globalized economic and policy landscape that emphasizes woodlands.This paper analyzes changing deforestation drivers and the implications of forest recovery and wooded landscapes emerging through social pressure, social policy, new government agencies, governance, institutions, ideologies, markets, migration and ‘neo-liberalization’ of nature. These changes include an expanded, but still constrained, arena for new social movements and civil society. These point to significant structural changes, changes in tropical natures, and require reframing of the ‘peasant question’ and the functions of rurality in the twenty-first century in light of forest dynamics.
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    ABSTRACT: The main objective of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework on how landscape ecology approach can be applied on Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) activities with special reference in LUCF sector. The development of the conceptual framework is based on three basic principles in landscape ecology, that is, structure (S), function (F) and change (C). The landscape ecological approach is widely used in landscape planning and management especially in developed countries whereas it is gradually gripping among developing countries particularly related to forest conservation and management. This approach has been adopted due to that it provides information about how is the relationship between landscape structure, or pattern and ecological processes through time. Through this relationship, assessment and evaluation of the landscape can be made which subsequently some alternative strategic planning and management could be formulated. Based on this principle, we developed the concept of SFC approach, which we discuss on how it can be applied in CDM.


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