Greenhouse gas abatement strategies for animal husbandry

Wageningen University, Wageningen, Gelderland, Netherlands
Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment (Impact Factor: 3.4). 02/2006; 112(2-3):163-170. DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2005.08.015
Source: OAI


Agriculture contributes significantly to the anthropogenic emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. In this paper, a review is presented of the agriculture related sources of methane and nitrous oxide, and of the main strategies for mitigation. The rumen is the most important source of methane production, especially in cattle husbandry. Less, but still substantial, amounts of methane are produced from cattle manures. In pig and poultry husbandry, most methane originates from manures. The main sources of nitrous oxide are: nitrogen fertilisers, land applied animal manure, and urine deposited by grazing animals. Most effective mitigation strategies for methane comprise a source approach, i.e. changing animals’ diets towards greater efficiencies. Methane emissions, however, can also be effectively reduced by optimal use of the gas produced from manures, e.g. for energy production. Frequent and complete manure removal from animal housing, combined with on-farm biogas production is an example of an integrated on-farm solution. Reduced fertiliser nitrogen input, optimal fertiliser form, adding nitrification inhibitors, land drainage management, and reduced land compaction by restricted grazing are the best ways to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions from farm land, whereas, management of bedding material and solid manure reduce nitrous oxide emissions from housing and storage. Other than for methane, mitigation measures for nitrous oxide interact with other important environmental issues, like reduction of nitrate leaching and ammonia emission. Mitigation strategies for reduction of the greenhouse gases should also minimize pollution swapping.

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Available from: Andre Bannink, Jun 27, 2014
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    • ") göre insanların çeşitli etkilerle (tarım-hayvancılık ve sanayideki gelişmelerle) salınımında artışa neden olduğu sera gazları, son 50 yılda küresel ısınmayı önemli derecede arttırmıştır. Sera gazları arasında en önemlileri karbondioksit (CO 2 ), metan (CH 4 ) ve nitroz oksit (N 2 O)'tir (Monteny ve ark., 2006). Metanın küresel ısınma üzerine etkisi karbondioksitten 23-25 kat fazla olması ve atmosferde kalma süresinin yaklaşık 12 yıl olması gibi nedenlerle sera gazları içinde CO 2 'ten sonra ikinci sırada öneme sahip olduğu bildirilmektedir (Hook ve ark., 2010; Broucek, 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of formic acid on the in vitro methane production and in vitro ruminal fermentation of alfalfa hay. Effect of 0.0 (control group: YF0), 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 ml/L (experimental groups: YF1, YF2, YF3, YF4, and YF5 respectively) formic acid (Amasil85-liquid) addition to rumen fluid on ruminal fermentation parameters of alfalfa hay were determined by using in vitro gas production techniques. Methane production of in vitro incubation increased (to about 20%) with addition of linearly increased formic acid. Linearly increased levels of formic acid addition to rumen fluid has significantly changed the production of in vitro total gas production, metabolic energy (ME) and organic matter digestibility (OMD) at linear, quadratic and cubic. The addition of 0.1 ml/L and 0.2 ml/L formic acid to rumen fluid significantly decreased in vitro total gas production, ME and OMD however addition of 0.3 ml/L and 0.4 ml/L formic acid was not changed in vitro gas production, ME and OMD levels and 0.5 ml/L formic acid was significantly increased all these parameters. Ruminal pH was not changed by addition of formic acid. Formic acid is a safe feed additive because of its properties antibacterial and flavorings and also is used as a fermentation promoter in silage. In this study it has been observed that all doses of formic acid increased in vitro enteric methane production and low doses decreased in vitro total gas production, ME and OMD and high doses have increased all these parameters. High doses have a positive effect on ME and OMD; however formic acid should be used at limited levels in diets due to the negative effect of increasing greenhouse gases. The effect of formic acid addition to the feed raw matter and rations of all livestock would be beneficial to investigate in terms of digestive system parameters and global warming, further in vitro and in vivo studies.
    • "Moreover, transformation from ammonium to nitrate via nitrification is a source of N 2 O (Chadwick et al., 2011); a variation of ammonium in manure could therefore influence, even if marginally, N 2 O emissions at the building level. Finally, methane (CH 4 ) emissions from animal housing are mainly caused by enteric fermentation, sensitive to rate of organic matter (OM) degradability, type of VFA produced and efficiency of microbial synthesis (Monteny et al., 2006). A reduction in N content of grass due to low N fertilisation was also predicted to increase enteric CH 4 emissions, through modification of rumen degradation characteristics and associated changes in the carbohydrate composition and degradability of the feed (Bannink et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Generally, <30% of dairy cattle's nitrogen intake is retained in milk. Large amounts of nitrogen are excreted in manure, especially in urine, with damaging impacts on the environment. This study explores the effect of lowering dietary degradable nitrogen supplies - while maintaining metabolisable protein - on dairy cows' performance, nitrogen use efficiency and gas emissions (NH3, N2O, CH4) at barn level with tied animals. Two dietary N concentrations (CP: 12% DM for LowN; 18% DM for HighN) were offered to two groups of three lactating dairy cows in a split-plot design over four periods of 2 weeks. Diets were formulated to provide similar metabolisable protein supply, with degradable N either in deficit or in excess (PDIN of 84 and 114 g/kg DM for LowN and HighN, respectively). Cows ingested 0.8 kg DM/day less on the LowN diet, which was also 2.5% less digestible. Milk yield and composition were not significantly affected. N exported in milk was 5% lower (LowN: 129 g N/day; HighN: 136 g N/day; P<0.001) but milk protein yield was not significantly affected (LowN: 801 g/day; HighN: 823 g/day; P=0.10). Cows logically ingested less nitrogen on the LowN diet (LowN: 415 g N/day; HighN: 626 g N/day; P<0.001) resulting in a higher N use efficiency (N milk/N intake; LowN: 0.31; HighN: 0.22; P<0.001). N excreted in urine was almost four times lower on the LowN diet (LowN: 65 g N/day; HighN: 243 g N/day; P<0.001) while urinary urea N concentration was eightfold lower (LowN: 4.6 g/l; HighN: 22.9 g/l; P<0.001). Ammonia emission (expressed in g/h in order to remove periods of the day with potential interferences with volatile molecules from feed) was also lower on the LowN diet (LowN: 1.03 g/h per cow; HighN: 1.25 g/h per cow; P<0.05). Greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4) at barn level were not significantly affected by the amount of dietary N. Offering low amounts of degradable protein with suitable metabolisable protein amounts to cattle improved nitrogen use efficiency and lowered ammonia emissions at barn level. This strategy would, however, need to be validated for longer periods, other housing systems (free stall barns) and at farm level including all stages of manure management.
    animal 09/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1751731115002050 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    • "Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) are important greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere, and their global atmospheric concentrations have considerably increased especially during the last century (Monteny et al., 2006). Accumulation of these gases raises the earth's temperature and contributes to global warming (Rosenzweig et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the effects of purified hydrolysable (chestnut and sumach) and condensed tannins (mimosa and quebracho) on methane production, rumen fermentation and microbial population structure. The tannins were extracted and purified from their original plant sources, and were characterized for their protein precipitation capacity. The purified tannins were added into 380 mg hay:concentrate substrate (70:30 w/w) at three different concentrations (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 mg/ml). In vitro incubation was carried out for 24 h at 39oC in 100 ml calibrated glass syringe containing 30 ml of medium (10 ml rumen liquor and 20 ml double strength buffer). Parameters measured after the incubation were gas production, methane concentration, short chain fatty acids (SCFA: C2, C3, C4, isoC4, C5, isoC5, total SCFA and ratio of C2/C3), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and microbial population structure. The experiment was performed in three runs, represented by two incubation units per run. Results revealed that the protein precipitation capacity of chestnut and sumach tannins was greater than that of mimosa and quebracho tannins. An interaction between different tannins and doses existed with regard to methane concentration (P≤0.05). All the tannins decreased methane concentration either linearly or quadratically, but their magnitudes were different; the magnitude of decrease was greater for the hydrolysable tannins than the condensed ones, and correlated with their protein precipitation capacity. Increasing levels of all tannins decreased IVOMD by following a quadratic pattern (P≤0.05) and there was a tendency that the condensed tannins decreased IVOMD more than the hydrolysable tannins (P≤0.1). All the purified hydrolysable and condensed tannins decreased total methanogen population (P≤0.05) than that of control when added at 1.0 mg/ml; the decrease ranged from 22.3 to 36.7% from control. Additions of purified tannins at all levels generally decreased Fibrobacter succinogenes population (P≤0.05). Sumach tannins at all addition levels decreased the population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens (P≤0.05), and the magnitude of decrease was much greater than those of other tannins. It is concluded that hydrolysable tannins had a greater effect in reducing methane emission with less adverse effect on digestibility than those of condensed tannins.
    Animal Feed Science and Technology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2015.08.002 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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