Fungicide resistance among Cladobotryum spp. — causal agents of cobweb disease of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus

Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Horticulture Research International, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF, UK
Mycological Research 01/2000; DOI: 10.1017/S0953756299001197
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT A survey of fungicide resistance among isolates of the mushroom pathogens Cladobotryum mycophilum and C. dendroides Types I and II was undertaken, with respect to the active ingredients thiabendazole, carbendazim (benzimidazoles) and prochloraz manganese following an epidemic in Britain and Ireland in 1994/95. The majority of isolates (41/57) were strongly resistant to thiabendazole (ED50 > 200 ppm) and were exclusively C. dendroides Type II. All C. mycophilum and C. dendroides Type I isolates, and four C. dendroides Type II isolates, were weakly resistant to thiabendazole (ED50 1–10 ppm). Thiabendazole-resistant C. dendroides Type II isolates were only weakly resistant to carbendazim (ED50 2–10 ppm) and isolates which were weakly resistant to thiabendazole were carbendazim-sensitive (ED50 < 1 ppm), demonstrating a lack of complete cross resistance between these two benzimidazole fungicides. The ED50 values for all isolates with respect to prochloraz manganese ranged from 0.14 to 7.8 ppm. Benzimidazole resistance was considered to have been an important factor influencing the severity of the 1994/95 cobweb epidemic but 25% of isolates collected were benzimidazole sensitive.

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    ABSTRACT: Twenty Trichoderma isolates were collected on 13 Serbian Agaricus bisporus farms and one in Bosnia and Herzegovina during 2006–2010. Twelve isolates were classified into five species by standard mycological studies and ITS1/ITS4 sequence analyses, namely Trichoderma atroviride, Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma virens, Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum and Trichoderma harzianum. Eight isolates were not identified to the species level but were shown to be related to T. harzianum. The isolates of T. harzianum exhibited the highest virulence to the harvested A. bisporus pilei and T. virens and T. aggressivum f. europaeum the lowest. Antifungal activity of two biofungicides based on Bacillus subtilis and tea tree oil and the fungicide prochloraz manganese were tested in vitro to all Trichoderma isolates. Prochloraz manganese and B. subtilis were highly toxic to all tested Trichoderma isolates, their ED 50 values were below 0.3 and 1.3 mg L −1 , respectively. Tea tree oil did not exhibit a significant antifungal activity (ED 50 = 11.9–370.8 mg L −1). The effectiveness of biofungicides was evaluated against T. harzianum in a mushroom growing room, and they were applied alone or in combination with the fungicide at a respective proportion of 20:80%. Prochloraz manganese showed higher effectiveness than both tested biofungicides or their respective mixtures. The biofungicide based on B. subtilis demonstrated greater effectiveness in preventing disease symptoms than tea tree oil. B. subtilis combined with the fungicide revealed less antagonism in effectiveness against pathogen than tea tree oil.
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    ABSTRACT: In 2009-2010, unusual symptoms were observed on Pleurotus eryngii grown in mushroom farms in Gyeongnam Province, Republic of Korea. One of the main symptoms was a cobweb-like growth of fungal mycelia over the surface of the mushroom. The colonies on the surface rapidly overwhelmed the mushrooms and developed several spores within 3-4 days. The colonized surface turned pale brown or yellow. The fruit body eventually turned dark brown and became rancid. Koch's postulates were completed by spraying and spotting using isolated strains. The phylogenetic tree obtained from the internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis showed that the isolated fungal pathogen corresponded to Cladobotryum mycophilum (99.5%). In the fungicide sensitivity tests, the values for the isolate with respect to benomyl and carbendazim were from 0.29 to 0.31 ppm. Benzimidazole fungicides were most effective against C. mycophilum, a causal agent of cobweb disease in P. eryngii.
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty Cladobotryum dendroides isolates from Serbian Agaricus bisporus farms collected during 2003–2007, and the F56 strain of A. bisporus were tested in vitro for sensitivity to tea tree oil (Timorex 66 EC), a biofungicide, in comparison with prochloraz–manganese (Octave WP). The efficacies of tea tree oil and prochloraz–manganese were evaluated in a mushroom growing room, after application at standard product application rates and a combination of the two at respective proportion of 20:80%. Tea tree oil was considerably less toxic than prochloraz–manganese in vitro to C. dendroides isolates (ED50 112.9–335.8 mg l−1) and A. bisporus F56 strain (98.0 mg l−1), although neither fungicide was lethal to the pathogen. The biological efficiency of tea tree oil was higher than in treatments with the reference formulation of prochloraz–manganese. In our in vivo trials, no negative interference of the biofungicide with A. bisporus physiology was observed. Tea tree oil applied at the standard product application rate caused a significant reduction in cobweb disease levels in the A. bisporus growing room. Timorex 66 EC should be tested further in combination with other biofungicides to investigate the effectiveness of various mixtures for A. bisporus disease control.
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