Recycling as Appropriate Behavior: A Review of Survey Data from Selected Recycling Education Programs in Michigan

The University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1115 U.S.A.
Resources Conservation and Recycling (Impact Factor: 2.56). 06/1990; DOI: 10.1016/0921-3449(90)90022-V
Source: OAI


Data from surveys conducted by six separate recycling education programs funded under the Clean Michigan Fund are compared. The findings indicate that a strong pro-recycling attitude exists among the populations sampled with a significant percentage of respondents planning to increase their level of recycling in the future. To aid this increase in participation these data suggest that education efforts should focus on helping people become more familiar with the details of how to recycle. And finally, these data support the idea that efforts to promote waste reduction and recycling behavior should focus on non-monetary motives.

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Available from: Raymond K De Young, Dec 29, 2013
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    • "Like many other environmental protection initiatives, sustainable waste management has to take place at the local level (Read, 1998). In other words, waste recovery requires the direct and active participation or engagement of other stakeholders, particularly general public (De Young, 1990; Lober, 1996; Barr, 2004). To stimulate community participation in waste recycling, understanding on what encourages people to recycle or discourages people from recycling is the first step. "
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    ABSTRACT: Efficacy of waste recycling is closely associated with the environmental sustainability of a city. However, just like many other environmental protection initiatives, waste recycling requires stakeholder engagement to succeed. Exploring determinants of waste recycling behaviour helps policy-makers to formulate schemes to promote recycling effectively. While most literature has studied the factors affecting waste recycling in low-rise low-density housing, little ink has been spilt on the same in a high-rise high-density residential setting. In this paper, the determinants of the amount of recyclables collected in 122 private high-rise housing estates in Hong Kong are investigated, with the use of a set of aggregate data. Household income, age and institution of regular reward schemes were found to have positive relationships with the amount of recyclable collected. Despite the optimism among some scholars about more conveniently located waste drop-off facilities as a motivator for waste recycling, the analysis results of this empirical study suggest that a floor-based system of waste separation facilities is by itself not likely to be effective in promoting domestic waste recycling in high-rises. To tackle the contemporary waste problem for the city’s sustainable development, resorts should be made to more intensified environmental education and economic incentives.
    Sustainable Development 03/2012; 20(2):115-127. DOI:10.1002/sd.468 · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    • "Various studies have shown that perceived inconvenience and the actual personal efforts required reduce participation in recycling schemes (cf., De Young, 1990; Domina and Koch, 2002; Do Valle et al., 2004; Ewing, 2001). Accordingly, convenient recycling schemes (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: Much previous research on recycling behavior has drawn heavily on models of personal and perceived social norms, as well as of personal attitudes, to explain recycling behavior. Although such models have received empirical support, the issue concerning discrepancies between norms, personal attitudes and an individual's behavior is yet to be resolved. Using battery recycling in Switzerland as a case in point, the present questionnaire-based research examines via regression analyses the relationship between self-reported recycling behavior and socio-demographic variables, attitudes towards ecologically positive waste disposal, trust in waste disposal authorities, specific knowledge concerning recycling, justifications for not participating in the recycling scheme, self-organization of recycling behavior, and level of battery consumption. It was found that recycling knowledge, self-organization of recycling, and disagreement with justifications for non-recycling were positively related to recycling behavior, while attitudes towards ecological waste disposal and trust in waste disposal authorities were not directly related to respondents’ self-reported battery recycling behavior. On the basis of these results, with reference to Sykes and Matza's Neutralization theory [Sykes GM, Matza D. Techniques of neutralization: a theory of delinquency. Am Sociol Rev 1957:22(6):664–70] a contextualized model of recycling behavior is proposed. This model is able to account for inconsistencies between personal attitudes and perceived social norms, and has practical implications for the design of public intervention strategies for enhancing participation in the recycling.
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    • "Other intrinsic motivations include factors such as locus of control, personal satisfaction derived from being environmentally responsible, general satisfaction from providing wildlife habitats or participating in a regional conservation program, and the psychological attachment to a cause—in our case, declining bird populations). Motives such as these can strongly stimulate conservation behavior ( Jacobs & Crews 1984; De Young 1986; Oskamp et al. 1991; Pieters 1991; Kempton et al. 1992; DeYoung et al. 1993). "
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