The effects of carbogen, carbon dioxide, and oxygen on noise-induced hearing loss

University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A.
Hearing Research (Impact Factor: 2.85). 12/1991; DOI: 10.1016/0378-5955(91)90176-A
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An investigation into the effect of Carbogen (95% O2/5% CO2), 5% CO2/air, and 100% oxygen on cochlear threshold shifts caused by noise was undertaken. Five groups of eight pigmented guinea pigs were exposed to 105 dB broad band noise for 6 h per day for five consecutive days with each group receiving the various gaseous mixtures either during noise exposure or for 1 h immediately after noise exposure. A control group received the same noise exposure but respired air. Auditory threshold shifts, as measured by the auditory evoked brainstem response, were measured at 2,4,8,12,16, 20 and 24 kHz. Recordings were taken pre-exposure and at Day 1, 3, 5, and Weeks 2 and 3 after noise exposure. Carbogen, given during noise exposure, resulted in a trend toward less post noise exposure threshold shift (as compared to controls) which reached statistical significance by Week 3 at all frequencies except 2 and 20 kHz. Subjects given Carbogen after exposure also showed a general trend toward decreased noise induced threshold shifts, as compared to controls, but this was not statistically significant. The mixture of 5% CO2 /air given during noise exposure yielded no difference in threshold shifts as compared to controls. When 100% oxygen was administered during noise exposure, a marked decrease in noise induced threshold shifts could be seen as compared to controls, with differences reaching statistical significance by day 5 at most frequencies. These results indicate that oxygen (i.e. cochlear-oxygenation) is a more important factor than CO2 (i.e., as a vasodilator) in protection of the cochlea from noise induced damage.

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    ABSTRACT: There would be great interest in finding a test which predicts individual susceptibility to permanent threshold shift. Such test would allow identification of people who are most likely to suffer hearing damage in high noise areas and thereby reduce the number of people presenting NIHL. Considering the consequences of NIHL for the health of the soldiers, the cost of the treatments, the operational and compensation costs induced by NIHL, it is necessary to assess the actual efficiency of the present medical treatments of the acoustic trauma. Preliminary results indicate that some treatments speed up the recovery and correspond to lower threshold shifts and smaller morphological damages. Moreover, experiments are in progress to assess the interest of new treatments applied directly to the inner ear.
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of carbogen (5% CO2:95% O2) 10% CO2-in-air and 100% O2 on cochlear blood flow (CBF), skin blood flow (SBP), blood pressure (BP) and arterial blood gases were investigated in the anesthetized, respired or self-respiring guinea pig. In respired animals, CBF and SBF were increased with carbogen and 10% CO2-in-air and decreased with O2. BP was elevated with each gas. In freely breathing animals, only 10% CO2-in-air caused a small increase in CBF; both carbogen and O2 caused CBF to decrease. SPF changes were similar in form, but larger than those seen in respirated subjects. No consistant change in BP was seen during breathing of these mixtures.Arterial PO2 was increased by carbogen and 10% CO2-in-air for both groups. PCO2 increased for both CO2 gas mixtures during forced respiration; but in free-breathing animals PCO2 only increased for 10% CO2-in-air (normal PCO2 values were maintained with carbogen thorough increased breathing rate). The observed changes in CBF were consistant with a balance between a combined vasoconstrictive effect of PO2 and vasodilation effect of PCO2 on cochlear vessels. Analysis of cochlear vascular conductivity (CBF/BP) indicated that vasodilation was significant only with 10% CO2-in-air in respirated animals. In all other conditions the increased CBF apparently reflects the increase profusion pressure associated with respiration of each gas. For clinical purposes, while carbogen does not appear to directly cause vasodilation of cochlear vessels it does lead to an increased oxygenation of the cochlea blood and would appear to avoid the cochlear vasoconstriction caused by 100% O2.
    Hearing Research 11/1991; · 2.85 Impact Factor


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