A serologic study was made in 34 children immunized against measles at the age of 12 months. Using a sensitive virus neutralization test, it was found that many of the children had pre-existing maternal antibody to measles virus. Children with high pre-existing antibody titers failed to seroconvert. Children with lower pre-existing antibody titers seroconverted, but the resulting antibody titer was significantly lower than in children without pre-existing antibody titer. The results of this study demonstrate a probably mechanism for measles vaccine failure in 12-month-old children and support the recommendation of the Public Health Service Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices to postpone measles vaccination to 15 months of age.
"The maternally acquired antibody (MAb) levels wane over the first 6 months of life and are usually absent by 1 year of age. Several studies suggest that MAbs inhibit humoral responses to infant vaccines; including live measles vaccine (Albrecht et al., 1977) and oral poliomyelitis vaccine, and non-live vaccines including pertussis (Burstyn et al., 1983; Englund et al., 1995), tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Bjorkholm et al., 1995), Hib conjugate vaccine (Claesson et al., 1989; Daum et al., 1991) and hepatitis A vaccine (Kanra et al., 2000); while other studies report no influence of MAbs on responses to these vaccines (Gans et al., 1998; Siegrist et al., 1998; Sallusto et al., 1999). Responses may still be protective even if MAb inhibition occurs (Jones et al., 2014), and while MAbs may interfere with the generation of humoral responses to vaccination, T cell responses do not seem to be similarly affected (Siegrist, 2003). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human newborns and infants are bombarded with multiple pathogens on leaving the sterile intra-uterine environment, and yet have suboptimal innate immunity and limited immunological memory, thus leading to increased susceptibility to infections in early life. They are thus the target age group for a host of vaccines against common bacterial and viral pathogens. They are also the target group for many vaccines in development, including those against tuberculosis (TB), malaria, and HIV infection. However, neonatal and infant responses too many vaccines are suboptimal, and in the case of the polysaccharide vaccines, it has been necessary to develop the alternative conjugated formulations in order to induce immunity in early life. Immunoregulatory factors are an intrinsic component of natural immunity necessary to dampen or control immune responses, with the caveat that they may also decrease immunity to infections or lead to chronic infection. This review explores the key immunoregulatory factors at play in early life, with a particular emphasis on regulatory T cells (Tregs). It goes on to explore the role that Tregs play in limiting vaccine immunogenicity, and describes animal and human studies in which Tregs have been depleted in order to enhance vaccine responses. A deeper understanding of the role that Tregs play in limiting or controlling vaccine-induced immunity would provide strategies to improve vaccine immunogenicity in this critical age group. New adjuvants and drugs are being developed that can transiently suppress Treg function, and their use as part of human vaccination strategies against infections is becoming a real prospect for the future.
Frontiers in Microbiology 09/2014; 5:477. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00477 · 3.99 Impact Factor
"However, a study using FcR knockout mice demonstrated that the existence of FcR-independent inhibitory mechanisms (Karlsson et al., 1999). Next, the hypothesis that MatAb neutralizes the live viral vaccine has been widely believed (Albrecht et al., 1977). MatAb can inhibit viral replication of live attenuated HRSV in mice (Crowe, 2001a). "
"It is more appropriate to include the competing causes of death. In addition, infants younger than 6 month old are not included since most of them are protected by maternal antibody against measles infection [11,12]. The distribution of age of infection is derived from epidemiologic studies which suggest 77% of the susceptible children get measles infection before their 5th birthday in a country with low and moderate MCV coverage [13,14]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) has been developed to estimate the impact of health interventions and can consider multiple interventions simultaneously. Given its increasing usage by donor organizations and national program planner, we compare the LiST measles model to the widely used World Health Organization's Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals (WHO/IVB) measles model which is used to produce estimates serving as a major indicator of monitoring country measles epidemics and the progress of measles control.
We analyzed the WHO/IVB models and the LiST measles model and identified components and assumptions held in each model. We contrasted the important components, and compared results from the two models by applying historical measles containing vaccine (MCV) coverages and the default values of all parameters set in the models. We also conducted analyses following a hypothetical scenario to understand how both models performed when the proportion of population protected by MCV declined to zero percent in short time period.
The WHO/IVB measles model and the LiST measles model structures differ: the former is a mixed model which applies surveillance data adjusted for reporting completeness for countries with good disease surveillance system and applies a natural history model for countries with poorer disease control program and surveillance system, and the latter is a cohort model incorporating country-specific cause-of-death (CoD) profiles among children under-five. The trends of estimates of the two models are similar, but the estimates of the first year are different in most of the countries included in the analysis. The two models are comparable if we adjust the measles CoD in the LiST to produce the same baseline estimates. In addition, we used the models to estimate the potential impact of stopping using measles vaccine over a 7-year period. The WHO/IVB model produced similar estimates to the LiST model with adjusted CoD. But the LiST model produced low estimates for countries with very low or eliminated measles infection that may be inappropriate.
The study presents methodological and quantitative comparisons between the WHO/IVB and the LiST measles models that highlights differences in model structures and may help users to better interpret and contrast estimates of the measles death from the two models. The major differences are resulted from the usage of case-fatality rate (CFR) in the WHO/IVB model and the CoD profile in the LiST. Both models have their own advantages and limitations. Users should be aware of the issue and apply as update country parameters as possible. Advanced models are expected to validate the policy-planning tools in the future.
BMC Public Health 04/2011; 11 Suppl 3(Suppl 3):S33. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-11-S3-S33 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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