Persistence of maternal antibody in infants beyond 12 months: mechanism of measles vaccine failure.
ABSTRACT A serologic study was made in 34 children immunized against measles at the age of 12 months. Using a sensitive virus neutralization test, it was found that many of the children had pre-existing maternal antibody to measles virus. Children with high pre-existing antibody titers failed to seroconvert. Children with lower pre-existing antibody titers seroconverted, but the resulting antibody titer was significantly lower than in children without pre-existing antibody titer. The results of this study demonstrate a probably mechanism for measles vaccine failure in 12-month-old children and support the recommendation of the Public Health Service Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices to postpone measles vaccination to 15 months of age.
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ABSTRACT: The objective was to study passively acquired influenza H1N1 pandemic (H1N1pdm) maternal antibody kinetics and its impact on subsequent influenza infection and vaccination in ferrets during an outbreak of the H1N1pdm. Infectivity of the H1N1pdm in the respiratory tract of ferrets was compared with the previous seasonal A/South Dakota/6/2007 (SD07, H1N1). Influenza-specific antibodies were quantitated and antibody-mediated protection against the homologous and heterologous H1N1 virus challenge infection was determined. H1N1pdm virus was approximately 10 times more infectious than SD07 in ferrets, replicated to higher viral titers in the upper respiratory tract and shed for a longer duration. Influenza-specific antibodies after natural infection persisted much longer in the circulation than passively acquired maternal antibodies. The protection conferred by the maternal antibodies was limited to the homologous virus strain and was ineffective against SD07 and H3N2 virus. Serum antibodies from maternal transmission or passive transfer interfered with homologous vaccine strain-mediated antibody responses in the ferret. A booster immunization was required to elicit a high level of antibody. The findings support the rationale for a prime and boost immunization strategy in young children in whom maternal antibodies are present.Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 03/2014; 8(2):169-76. · 1.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The lower immune response and efficacy of live oral rotavirus (RV) vaccines tested in developing countries may be due in part to high levels of pre-existing RV antibodies transferred to the infant from mother via the placenta. The candidate RV vaccine strain 116E was isolated from a newborn indicating that it might grow well even in the presence of this transplacental rotavirus antibody. Since the immune response to this vaccine among infants in the Indian subcontinent has been greater than that of the commercially licensed vaccines, we questioned whether this might be due to the ability of RV 116E to grow well in infants despite the presence of maternal RV antibody. To this end, we tested pre-immunization sera from Indian infants enrolled in a phase Ia/IIb trial of candidate RV vaccine ORV-116E for transplacental RV IgG to see whether it affected the immune responses and seroconversion to the vaccine. We found that the high titers of transplacental RV IgG diminished the immune responses of infants to ORV-116E vaccine. However, the vaccine was able to overcome the inhibitory effect of this RV IgG in a dose-dependent manner. This report clearly demonstrates the interference of maternal antibody on RV vaccine immunogenicity in infants in a field study as well as the ability of ORV-116E to overcome this interference when used at a higher dose.Vaccine 02/2014; 32(6):651-656. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Infection with wild-type measles virus (MeV) induces lifelong protection from reinfection, and parenteral delivery of the live attenuated measles vaccine (LAV) also provides protection from measles. The level of neutralizing antibody is a good indicator of protection, but the independent roles of MeV-specific antibody and T cells have not been identified. In this study, macaques immunized with LAV through a nebulizer and a mouthpiece developed MeV-specific T-cell responses but not neutralizing antibodies. Upon challenge with wild-type MeV, these animals developed rashes and viremias similar to those in naive animals but cleared viral RNA from blood 25 to 40 days faster. The nebulizer-immunized animals also had more robust MeV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses than the naive animals after challenge, characterized by a higher number and better durability of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing cells. Induction of MeV-specific circulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells capable of producing multiple cytokines correlated with clearance of viral RNA in the nebulizer-immunized macaques. These studies demonstrated that MeV-specific T-cell immunity alone did not prevent measles, but T-cell priming enhanced the magnitude, durability, and polyfunctionality of MeV-specific T cells after challenge infection and correlated with more rapid clearance of MeV RNA. IMPORTANCE The components of vaccine-induced immunity necessary for protection from infection and disease have not been clearly identified for most vaccines. Vaccine development usually focuses on induction of antibody, but T-cell-based vaccines are also under development. The live attenuated measles vaccine (LAV) given subcutaneously induces both T cells and neutralizing antibody and provides solid protection from infection. LAV delivered to the upper respiratory tract through a nebulizer and mouthpiece induced a T-cell response but no neutralizing antibody. These T-cell-primed macaques demonstrated no protection from rash or viremia when challenged with wild-type MeV, but viral RNA was cleared more rapidly than in unimmunized animals. Thus, T-cell immunity did not protect from infection or acute disease but facilitated virus clearance during recovery. These studies demonstrate the importance and independent roles of T cells and antibody in protection and recovery from measles.mBio 01/2014; 5(2). · 5.62 Impact Factor