Improvement of downstream processing of recombinant proteins by means of genetic engineering methods

Universität Bielefeld, Technische Fakultät, Arbeitsgruppe Fermentationstechnik, Postfach 10 01 31, 4800 Bielefeld 1, Germany
Biotechnology Advances (Impact Factor: 8.91). 02/1993; 11(1):31-77. DOI: 10.1016/0734-9750(93)90409-G
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The rapid advancement of genetic engineering has allowed to produce an impressive number of proteins on a scale which would not have been achieved by classical biotechnology. At the beginning of this development research was focussed on elucidating the mechanisms of protein overexpression. The appearance of inclusion bodies may illustrate the success. In the meantime, genetic engineering is not only expected to achieve overexpression, but to improve the whole process of protein production. For downstream processing of recombinant proteins, the synthesis of fusion proteins is of primary importance. Fusion with certain proteins or peptides may protect the target protein from proteolytic degradation and may alter its solubility. Intracellular proteins may be translocated by means of fusions with signal peptides. Affinity tags as fusion complements may render protein separation and purification highly selective. These methods as well as similar ones for improving the downstream processing of proteins will be discussed on the basis of recent literature.

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    ABSTRACT: Host selection can be a strategy to simplify downstream processing for protein recovery. Advancing capabilities for using plants as hosts offers new host opportunities that have received only limited attention from a downstream processing perspective. Here, we investigated the potential of using a polycationic precipitating agent ( polyethylenimine; PEI ) to precipitate an acidic model protein ( β- glucuronidase; GUS) from aqueous plant extracts. To assess the potential of host selection to enhance the ease of recovery, the same procedure was applied to oilseed extracts of canola, corn ( germ), and soy. For comparison, PEI precipitation of GUS was also evaluated from a crude bacterial fermentation broth. Two versions of the target protein were investigated — the wild-type enzyme (WTGUS) and a genetically engineered version containing 10 additional aspartates on each of the enzyme's four homologous subunits (GUSD10). It was found that canola was the most compatible expression host for use with this purification technique. GUS was completely precipitated from canola with the lowest dosage of PEI (30 mg PEI/g total protein), and over 80% of the initial WTGUS activity was recovered with 18-fold purification. Precipitation from soy gave yields over 90% for WTGUS but only 1.3-fold enrichment. Corn, although requiring the most PEI relative to total protein to precipitate ( 210 mg PEI/g total protein for 100% precipitation), gave intermediate results, with 81% recovery of WTGUS activity and a purification factor of 2.6. The addition of aspartate residues to the target protein did not enhance the selectivity of PEI precipitation in any of the systems tested. In fact, the additional charge reduced the ability to recover GUSD10 from the precipitate, resulting in lower yields and enrichment ratios compared to WTGUS. Compared to the bacterial host, plant systems provided lower polymer dosage requirements, higher yields of recoverable activity and greater purification factors. © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 77: 148–154, 2002.
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 01/2002; 77(2):148-154. DOI:10.1002/bit.10135 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low molecular size additives such as L-arginine and the redox compounds have been used both in the culture medium and in vitro refolding to increase recombinant proteins production. Additives increase protein refolding and yield of active proteins by suppressing aggregate formation or enhancing refolding process. In this work, a comparative study was performed on refolding of recombinant plasminogen activator (rPA) in the presence of different concentrations of denaturants and additives. Escherichia coli-expressed rPA inclusion bodies were solubilized in chaotropic denaturants and subjected to protein refolding by dilution method. The effects of various additives, the impact of pH, residual Guanidin Hydrochloride (Gn-HCl) and Dithiothreitol (DTT) on refolding process were investigated. The refolding process was assessed by determination of protein solubility and biological assay. The results of the study demonstrated that the best condition for solubilizing the rPA inclusion body was 6M guanidine hydrochloride at pH=10. In refolding step, L-arginine showed increasing effect on suppression of aggregation at concentrations of 200-1000 mM. Glutathione pairs (GSH-GssG) showed refolding enhancer effect in a range of 2-20 mM. The highest refolding yield was obtained in 500 mM L-arginine and reduced/oxidized glutathione 10:1 ratio in pH 10. In conclusion, the results show that L-arginine plays an important role in the refolding of human PA, preventing the aggregation of folding intermediate, and glutathione pair is essential for the correct refolding. The results also revealed that higher solubility in the presence of higher concentration of L-arginine (> 500 mM) or pH (> 10) is not associated with higher activity.
    Iranian Journal of Biotechnology 01/2011; 9(4):253-259. · 0.54 Impact Factor

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