Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of late Precambrian ensimatic volcanic rocks, central eastern desert of Egypt

Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Road N.W., Washington, DC 20015 U.S.A.
Precambrian Research 01/1981; DOI: 10.1016/0301-9268(81)90013-9

ABSTRACT Early stages in the geologic evolution of the central eastern desert of Egypt (CED) reflect an intense episode of ensimatic volcanic activity similar to modern magmatism of the ocean floors and island arcs. This paper reports results from studies of the petrology and petrogenesis, and interprets the significance of these Late Precambrian volcanic rocks.A three-fold stratigraphy is preserved in the basement of the CED. A basal section of oceanic crust includes ultramafics, gabbros and pillowed basalts. These older metavolcanics (OMV) are conformably succeeded by dominantly volcanogenic metasediments, which are in turn succeeded by a dominantly andesitic, calc-alkaline sequence of younger metavolcanics (YMV). The OMV and YMV are largely restricted to the CED in Egypt, but analogous terranes are found in northern Arabia. (40–400 ppm) and Ni (30–260 ppm). They are poor in K2O (0.05–0.92%), Rb (0.3–5.0 ppm) and Ba (11–89 ppm). On Ti-Zr-Cr-V-Ni-P discriminant diagrams, the OMV plot in the field of modern abyssal tholeiites. High K/Rb (450–1800) and light REE depletions support this inference, although K/Ba (25–45) is lower than modern mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). The sum of OMV geochemical characteristics requires that these magmas were derived by the fractional fusion of the mantle. It is suggested that the OMV were generated by 20–25% fractional melting of previously depleted mantle at depths of less than 60 km. Relatively little fractionation accompanied ascent to the surface, where the OMV were erupted in a primitive crustal environment, either a small oceanic rift or a back-arc basin.Metamorphism of the YMV resulted in little elemental redistribution. These andesites have sub-alkaline clinopyroxenes and major-element geochemical characteristics indistinguishable from modern calc-alkaline andesites. YMV andesites in the central and western CED have K/Rb = 400–600, K/Ba = 20–40 and are light REE-enriched and heavy REE depleted. High concentrations of Cr (50–150 ppm) and Ni (20–100 ppm) and low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7028–0.7030) indicate that these magmas were generated by melting in the mantle. Modelling studies and consideration of experimental data indicate that these andesites were formed by 2–10% fractional fusion of hydrous, undepleted, garnet therzolite at depths of 65 km or more in the mantle.The data show that an intense episode of instability, convection, and widespread melting occurred in the mantle beneath Afro-Arabia at the end of the Precambrian.

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    ABSTRACT: Zircon Hf isotopic compositions for Neoproterozoic igneous rocks in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt are presented and interpreted. The Humr Akarim (633 ± 7 and 603 ± 9 Ma)-Humrat Mukbid (625 ± 8 and 619 ± 8 Ma) plutons are Early Ediacaran post-collsional subsolvus granites. Their zircon ages range from 0.57 to 0.71 Ga, with high positive eHf(T) values of +4.0 to +11.9. Hf model ages (Hf-TDMc) of 0.81-1.3 Ga, are close to the U-Pb crystallization ages. These isotopic characteristics, along with published whole-rock Nd isotopic data, indicate that the protoliths were juvenile. The Wadi Kareim and Wadi El-Dabbah metavolcano-sedimentary rocks are Cryogenian (~750 Ma) arc-related metabasalts, meta-andesites and meta-tuffs. Their U-Pb zircon age populations range between 0.7 – 0.9, 0.9 – 1.5 Ga and 2.0 – 3.0 Ga. The youngest group represents magmatic zircons in the metavolcanics or reworked Neoproterozoic rocks in the metasediments. The 0.9 – 1.5 Ga and 2.0 – 3.0 Ga age groups are similar to those in pre-Neoproterozoic rocks that surround the Arabian-Nubian Shield and represent inherited or older detrital grains. The highly variable eHf(T) values (+23.5 to – 35.0) and Hf-TDMc ages (0.78–3.8 Ga) of Neoproterozoic zircons indicate that at least some of these magmas interacted with a pre-Neoproterozoic crustal source.
    Precambrian Research 12/2013; 239:42-55. · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Humr Akarim and Humrat Mukbid plutons, in the central Eastern Desert of Egypt, are late Neoproterozoic post-collisional alkaline A-type granites. Humr Akarim and Humrat Mukbid plutonic rocks consist of subsolvus alkali granites and a subordinate roof facies of albite granite, which hosts greisen and Sn–Mo-mineralized quartz veins; textural and field evidence strongly suggest the presence of late magmatic F-rich fluids. The granites are Si-alkali rich, Mg–Ca–Ti poor with high Rb/Sr (20–123), and low K/Rb (27–65). They are enriched in high field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, Zr, Y, U, Th) and heavy rare earth elements (Lan /Ybn = 0.27–0.95) and exhibit significant tetrad effects in REE patterns. These geochemical attributes indicate that granite trace element distribution was controlled by crystal fractionation as well as interaction with fluorine-rich magmatic fluids. U–Pb SHRIMP zircon dating indicates an age of ~630–620 Ma but with abundant evidence that zircons were affected by late corrosive fluids (e.g., discordance, high common Pb). εNd at 620 Ma ranges from +3.4 to +6.8 (mean = +5.0) for Humr Akarim granitic rocks and from +4.8 to +7.5 (mean = +5.8) for Humrat Mukbid granitic rocks. Some slightly older zircons (~740 Ma, 703 Ma) may have been inherited from older granites in the region. Our U–Pb zircon data and Nd isotope results indicate a juvenile magma source of Neoproterozoic age like that responsible for forming most other ANS crust and refute previous conclusions that pre-Neoproterozoic continental crust was involved in the generation of the studied granites.
    International Journal of Earth Sciences 08/2012; 101(7). · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Kid Group is one of the few exposures of Neoproterozoic metavolcano-sedimentary rocks in the basement of southern Sinai in the northernmost Arabian–Nubian Shield. It is divided into the mostly metamorphosed volcaniclastic Melhaq and siliciclastic Um Zariq formations in the north and the mostly volcanic Heib and Tarr formations in the south. The Heib, Tarr, and Melhaq formations reflect an intense episode of igneous activity and immature clastic deposition associated with core-complex formation during Ediacaran time, but Um Zariq metasediments are relicts of an older (Cryogenian) sedimentary sequence. The latter yielded detrital zircons with concordant ages as young as 647 ± 12 Ma, which may indicate that the protolith of Um Zariq schist was deposited after ~ 647 Ma but 19 concordant zircons gave a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 813 ± 6 Ma, which may represent the maximum depositional age of this unit. In contrast, a cluster of 11 concordant detrital zircons from the Melhaq Formation yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 615 ± 6 Ma. Zircons from Heib Formation rhyolite clast define a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 609 ± 5 Ma, which is taken to approximate the age of Heib and Tarr formation volcanism. Intrusive syenogranite sample from Wadi Kid yields a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 604 ± 5 Ma. These constraints indicate that shallow-dipping mylonites formed between 615 ± 6 Ma and 604 ± 5 Ma. Geochemical data for volcanic samples from the Melhaq and Heib formations and the granites show continuous major and trace element variations corresponding to those expected from fractional crystallization. The rocks are enriched in large ion lithophile and light rare earth elements, with negative Nb anomalies. These reflect magmas generated by melting of subduction-modified lithospheric mantle, an inference that is further supported by εNd(t) = + 2.1 to + 5.5. This mantle source obtained its trace element characteristics by interaction with fluids and melts from subducting oceanic crust during the Late Cryogenian time, prior to terminal collision between fragments of East and West Gondwana at ~ 630 Ma. Positive εNd(t) values and the absence of pre-Ediacaran zircons in all but Um Zariq metasediments indicate minor interaction with Cryogenian and older crust. A model of extensional collapse following continental collision, controlled mainly by lithospheric delamination and slab break-off is suggested for the origin of the post-collision volcanics and granites at Wadi Kid. No evidence of pre-Neoproterozoic sources was found. Kid Group Ediacaran volcanic rocks are compositionally and chronologically similar to the Dokhan Volcanics of NE Egypt, which may be stratigraphic equivalents.
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