Article

Regulatory mode effects on counterfactual thinking and regret

Dipartimento di Psicologia dei Processi di Sviluppo e Socializzazione, Sapienza Università di Roma, Via dei Marsi 78, Roma, Italy; Department of Psychology, Columbia University, New York, USA; Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA; Dipartimento di Psicologia, Università di Cagliari, Via Is Mirrionis 1, Italy
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 01/2008; DOI: 10.1016/j.jesp.2007.06.002
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT The present studies examined the influence of two regulatory mode concerns—a locomotion concern with movement from state to state and an assessment concern with making comparisons [see Higgins, E. T., Kruglanski, A. W., & Pierro, A. (2003). Regulatory mode: Locomotion and assessment as distinct orientations. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 35, pp. 293–344). New York: Academic Press]—on engaging in counterfactual thinking and experiencing post-decisional regret. When contemplating a decision with a negative outcome, it was predicted that high (vs. low) locomotion would induce less counterfactual thinking and less regret, whereas the opposite would be true for high (vs. low) assessment. Locomotion and assessment orientations were measured as chronic individual differences in Study 1 and 2, and were induced experimentally in Study 3. In Study 1 and 3 a purchase scenario with a negative outcome was used to elicit counterfactuals and regret, while in Study 2 participants were asked to recall one of their own personal purchases that had a negative outcome. The results supported our predictions. We discuss the implications of these findings for the nature of counterfactual thinking and regret from the perspective of their relation to regulatory mode.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
132 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nostalgia is defined as the remembrance of prior experiences that are self-relevant, involve close others, and carry a predominantly positive affective tone (Wildschut et al. in J Pers Soc Psychol 91:975–993, 2006). Given nostalgia’s palliative function for coping with negative affect and self-threats (Sedikides et al. in Curr Dir Psychol Sci 17:304–307, 2008), the present research explores a psychological construct related to greater experience of nostalgia: regulatory mode. According to regulatory mode theory (Kruglanski et al. in J Pers Soc Psychol 79:793–815, 2000; Higgins et al. in Adv exp soc psychol 35:293–344, 2003), assessment is the aspect of self-regulation focused on evaluation, whereas locomotion is focused on goal progress. We hypothesized that emphasis of the assessment mode on evaluation would promote nostalgia, while emphasis of the locomotion mode on progress would prevent it. These predictions were corroborated in two studies that assessed regulatory modes as individual difference factors (Study 1) and induced them experimentally (Study 2). Implications of these findings for the self regulation process are considered.
    Motivation and Emotion 01/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Beyond motivations to achieve particular outcomes, people also have motivations to use particular strategies while pursuing these outcomes. This article integrates research on the latter strategic preferences and discusses the place of such research in the broader investigation of motivated thinking. A review of studies examining the strategic preferences stemming from both motivations for promotion versus prevention (Higgins, 1997) and motivations for locomotion versus assessment (Higgins, Kruglanski, & Pierro, 2003) illustrates that these preferences have unique effects on basic processes of judgment, including the evaluation of alternative hypotheses or counterfactuals, the prioritization of fast versus accurate information processing, and the recall and activation of knowledge from memory. Moreover, this review also demonstrates important interactions between strategic preferences and outcome preferences. Strategic preferences thus appear to make distinct and important contributions to understanding how motivation influences judgment and should feature prominently in general analyses of motivated thinking.
    Social and Personality Psychology Compass 02/2012; 6(2).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The paper goal is to identify the predictors of the sales team that determine business performance and cross-selling in the relationship marketing. In the theoretical model, we suggested hypotheses that are associated with sales performance and cross-selling. In terms of results, cross-selling and sales training had significant association with business performance in the B2B channel. The boss pressure also had significant relation. The leadership pressure means that there is much pressure and demand for better results. However, this high pressure decreases cross-selling performance. The results supported this assumption. Also, understanding the consumer' s need affected cross-selling. Finally, directing sales, which had a negative relationship with performance in the retail segment B2B, was positive in the pharmaceutical segment, B2C.
    Revista de Administração de Empresas 12/2013; 53(6):565-579. · 0.21 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
36 Downloads
Available from
May 31, 2014