Article

Evaluation of the water equivalence of solid phantoms using gamma ray transmission measurements

Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Australia; Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia; Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia
Radiation Measurements 01/2008; DOI: 10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.01.019

ABSTRACT Gamma ray transmission measurements have been used to evaluate the water equivalence of solid phantoms. Technetium-99m was used in narrow beam geometry and the transmission of photons measured, using a gamma camera, through varying thickness of the solid phantom material and water. Measured transmission values were compared with Monte Carlo calculated transmission data using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code to score fluence in a geometry similar to that of the measurements. The results indicate that the RMI457 Solid Water, CMNC Plastic Water and PTW RW3 solid phantoms had similar transmission values as compared to water to within ±1.5%. However, Perspex had a greater deviation in the transmission values up to ±4%. The agreement between the measured and EGSnrc calculated transmission values agreed to within ±1% over the range of phantom thickness studied. The linear attenuation coefficients at the gamma ray energy of 140.5 keV were determined from the measured and EGSnrc calculated transmission data and compared with predicted values derived from data provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) using the XCOM program. The coefficients derived from the measured data were up to 6% lower than those predicted by the XCOM program, while the coefficients determined from the Monte Carlo calculations were between measured and XCOM values. The results indicate that a similar process can be followed to determine the water equivalency of other solid phantoms and at other photon energies.

1 Bookmark
 · 
247 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ir-192 source is widely used in high dose rate brachytherapy. The aim of this study was to derive the brachytherapy dosimetric functions described in AAPM TG-43 to characterize the dosimetric properties of commercially available microselectron HDR Ir-192 source. All the measurements were carried out with GAFCHROMIC EBT radiochromic film in water equivalent solid phantom and the grey values were analyzed using Omnipro IMRT film dosimetry software with Vidar VXR-16 scanner. Optical density of the film was converted to dose using calibration film established in this study. Measurements were carried out by measuring the dose at radial distances from 0.5cm to 5.0cm with interval of 0.5cm and at polar angle 0°–180° in 10° intervals. Dosimetric functions such as dose rate constant, radial dose functions and anisotropy of the dose distribution were found to be in good agreement with Monte Carlo calculations. This study confirms the feasibility of radiochromic EBT film dosimetry in characterization of the TG-43 parameters for Ir-192 HDR source.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 05/2009; 267(10):1862-1866. · 1.19 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Estimation of the surface dose is very important for patients undergoing radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dose at the surface of a water phantom at a depth of 0.007 cm as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement with radiochromic films (RFs), thermoluminescent dosemeters and an ionisation chamber in a 6-MV photon beam. The results were compared with the theoretical calculation using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation software (MCNP5, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc). The RF was calibrated by placing the films at a depth of maximum dose (dmax) in a solid water phantom and exposing it to doses from 0 to 500 cGy. The films were scanned using a transmission high-resolution HP scanner. The optical density of the film was obtained from the red component of the RGB images using ImageJ software. The per cent surface dose (PSD) and percentage depth dose (PDD) curve were obtained by placing film pieces at the surface and at different depths in the solid water phantom. TLDs were placed at a depth of 10 cm in a solid water phantom for calibration. Then the TLDs were placed at different depths in the water phantom and were exposed to obtain the PDD. The obtained PSD and PDD values were compared with those obtained using a cylindrical ionisation chamber. The PSD was also determined using Monte Carlo simulation of a LINAC 6-MV photon beam. The extrapolation method was used to determine the PSD for all measurements. The PSD was 15.0±3.6 % for RF. The TLD measurement of the PSD was 16.0±5.0 %. The (0.6 cm(3)) cylindrical ionisation chamber measurement of the PSD was 50.0±3.0 %. The theoretical calculation using MCNP5 and DOSXYZnrc yielded a PSD of 15.0±2.0 % and 15.7±2.2 %. In this study, good agreement between PSD measurements was observed using RF and TLDs with the Monte Carlo calculation. However, the cylindrical chamber measurement yielded an overestimate of the PSD. This is probably due to the ionisation chamber calibration factor that is only valid in charged particle equilibrium condition, which is not achieved at the surface in the build-up region.
    Radiation Protection Dosimetry 12/2013; · 0.91 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Investigation is made on the energy spectrum of photons originating from interactions of 662 keV primary gamma-ray photons emitted by a point source positioned at the centre of a water equivalent solid phantom of dimensions 19 cm×19 cm×24 cm. Peaks resulting from total energy loss (photopeak) and multiple and back scattering have been observed using a 51 mm×51 mm NaI(Tl) detector; good agreement being found between the measured and simulated response functions. The energy spectrum of the gamma photons obtained through the Monte Carlo simulation reveals local maxima at about 100 keV and 210 keV, being also observed in the experimental response function. Such spectra can be used as a method of testing the water equivalence of solid phantom media before their use for dosimetry measurements.
    Radiation Physics and Chemistry 07/2012; 81(7):745. · 1.19 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
1,063 Downloads
Available from
May 16, 2014