Levels of heavy metals in candy packages and candies likely to be consumed by small children

Gyeonggi-do Institute of Health and Environment, 324-1 Pajang-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-290, Republic of Korea
Food Research International (Impact Factor: 3.05). 01/2008; DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2008.01.004

ABSTRACT Ninety two samples of child-consumed candies and candy packages were analyzed for seven heavy metals. Lead (Pb) was detected at concentrations of 110.3–6394.1 mg kg−1 in ten of 92 candy packages. The directive factor of Pb contamination had originated in the lead-based ink of the outer cover. Particularly, Pb was detected at high concentrations in case of green- or yellow-colored packages. Chromium (Cr) was detected at high concentrations in cases where Pb was also detected at high concentrations, and the Cr levels ranged from 136.9 mg kg−1 to 1429.3 mg kg−1 in seven of the 92 candy packages. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] was detected at 87–105.0% of the total Cr in polypropylene-coated wrappers with printed outer covers. The migration of Cr(VI) increased with elution time up to 0.20 μg (cm2)−1 for 30 days in basic (pH 10.0) solution; however, there were no migrations in acidic (pH 4.0) and neutral (pH 7.0) solutions. The migration of Pb increased with elution time up to 0.65 μg (cm2)−1 and 0.28 μg (cm2)−1 in basic (pH 10.0) and acidic (pH 4.0) solutions, respectively. However, any migration was hardly observed in neutral (pH 7.0) solution.

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