Levels of heavy metals in candy packages and candies likely to be consumed by small children

Gyeonggi-do Institute of Health and Environment, 324-1 Pajang-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-290, Republic of Korea
Food Research International (Impact Factor: 2.82). 01/2008; 41(4):411-418. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2008.01.004


Ninety two samples of child-consumed candies and candy packages were analyzed for seven heavy metals. Lead (Pb) was detected at concentrations of 110.3–6394.1 mg kg−1 in ten of 92 candy packages. The directive factor of Pb contamination had originated in the lead-based ink of the outer cover. Particularly, Pb was detected at high concentrations in case of green- or yellow-colored packages. Chromium (Cr) was detected at high concentrations in cases where Pb was also detected at high concentrations, and the Cr levels ranged from 136.9 mg kg−1 to 1429.3 mg kg−1 in seven of the 92 candy packages. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] was detected at 87–105.0% of the total Cr in polypropylene-coated wrappers with printed outer covers. The migration of Cr(VI) increased with elution time up to 0.20 μg (cm2)−1 for 30 days in basic (pH 10.0) solution; however, there were no migrations in acidic (pH 4.0) and neutral (pH 7.0) solutions. The migration of Pb increased with elution time up to 0.65 μg (cm2)−1 and 0.28 μg (cm2)−1 in basic (pH 10.0) and acidic (pH 4.0) solutions, respectively. However, any migration was hardly observed in neutral (pH 7.0) solution.

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Available from: jung-beom Kim, Feb 15, 2014
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    • "Reliable control of a range of packaging materials required analytical methods allowing the determination of traces metals in a large variety of matrices with satisfactory sensitivity and selectivity (Batista, Rodrigues, de Souza, Oliveira Souza, & Barbosa, 2011; Capar, Mindak, & Cheng, 2007; Kim et al., 2008; Llorent-Martínez, Ortega- Barrales, Fernández-de Córdova, Domínguez-Vidal, & Ruiz-Medina, 2011; Skrzydlewska, Balcerzak, & Vanhaecke, 2003). The use of both microwave digestion in closed-vessel for sample preparation and the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for detection permitted an accurate determination of multi-element at trace and ultra-trace level in food samples (Millour et al., 2011; Sanchez Lopez, Gil Garcia, Sanchez Morito, & Martinez Vidal, 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Indocalamus tesselatus is one of the most popular packing materials in China. Heavy metals in Chinese I. tesselatus samples have received great interest because they are related to health. A simple and fast method for the determination of Pb, Cd, Mn, Ni, Cr, As, Hg, Cu and Zn, by inductively coupled plasma orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ICP-oa-TOF-MS), following microwave closed vessel digestion of samples, was proposed. The method was validated using standard reference material (GBW 07605-Tea). Samples of I. tesselatus from five different regions of China were analysed using the proposed method. Heavy metals contents from different regions were found at different levels. Their low contents of heavy metals showed that collection areas were not polluted and all collected I. tesselatus samples could be unreservedly used as food packing materials without any health risk.
    Food Chemistry 12/2013; 141(3):2154-7. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.04.103 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    • "Taking into consideration that products passed through different industrial processes and are packaged to provide a means of protecting, marketing or handling, and most of them are printed colour inks on the outer cover (Kim et al., 2008). Importantly, food products such as candies that are likely to be consumed frequently by small children are wrapped in colourful packages in order to induce them to purchase the products. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study was initiated as a follow-up information on some impounded products chocolates and candies (Samples A, B, C and D) imported from overseas, and sold in Nigeria markets. This result as their failure to meets Nation Agency for food drug administration and control (NAFDAC) regulatory standard. Samples of these products were collected in five markets of each six states each from the six geographical zones: North-West (Bauchi), North-East (Kano), North-Central (Kogi), South-West (Lagos), South-East (Abia), and South-South (Rivers) of the country. In order to evaluate the quality of the products, the levels of some heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Ti and Cr) were evaluated in the samples using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Concentrations of metals in both chocolates and candies ranged 3.0 – 4.2 mg/g for Cu, 40.0 – 55.7 mg/g for Mn, ND – 102.5 mg/g for Fe, ND – 305.0 mg/g for Ni, ND – 42.5 mg/g for Zn, ND – 23.8 mg/g for Ti, and ND – 10.8 mg/g for Cr. The results showed that that these metals are at higher levels in Samples A, B, C and D compared to other studies in candies and chocolates in Nigeria. Correlation analysis among metals revealed positive correlations, which indicates similar sources of these metals. Also, evaluation of dietary intake of these products daily revealed that Samples A (except for Cu), B and C are above the daily dietary recommended limit for all the studied metals in food. Thus a frequent intake of these contaminated products is likely to induce health effects arising largely from Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn.
    05/2012; 1(3). DOI:10.5539/jfr.v1n3p169
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    • "Candies in general are sticky and can adhere to its wrapper which suggests that children come into contact with the wrapper either through licking or sucking the wrapper (CDC, 2002). Furthermore, candy contact surfaces of the packages have a potential for contamination because finished packaging films are frequently distributed to manufacturers in reel form in which the outer printed surface and food contact surfaces of the packages are in contact with each other (Kim et al., 2008). As a result, candy wrappers cannot be ignored when dealing with contaminated candies. "

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