The technique of DNA fingerprinting using human minisatellite probes is applied to the study of gynogenetically derived fish in two tilapia species, Oreochromis aureus and O. niloticus. In O. aureus, analysis of the progeny of a cross between two putative mitogynes provides unexpected evidence of transmission of some paternal DNA during gynogenesis. In O. niloticus, DNA fingerprinting provides confirmation of exclusively maternal transmission during gynogenesis but mitogynes and meiogynes cannot be distinguished unambiguously.
"Biochemical markers such as allozyme loci have been used to evaluate the success of gynogenesis in tilapia (Hussain et al., 1998; Sarder et al., 1999). Multilocus DNA fingerprinting has been used in several fish species including tilapia (Carter et al., 1991; Muller-Belecke and Horstgen-Schwark, 1995), African catfish (Volckaert et al., 1994) and sea bass (Felip et al., 2000). RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism), RAPD (Random amplified polymorphic DNA) and simple sequence repeat-anchored PCR (SSRa-PCR) have also been useful to study the clonal status of clone founders and to examine the uniformity of the gynogenetic offspring of founders and the genetic differences among the clones (Jenneckens et al., 1999; Galbusera et al., 2000; Peruzzi and Chatain, 2000). "
"DNA analysis is becoming increasingly important in aquaculture (for review see Ferguson 1995; Thorgaard 1995; Ward and Grewe 1995), as it is in the study of fish in which the whole genome has been manipulated. Besides DNA fingerprinting (Carter et al. 1991; Harris et al. 1991; Young et al. 1996), RAPD analysis (Corley-Smith et al. 1996; van Eenennaam et al. 1996) has also been applied to the genomic analysis of andro-or gyno-genetic fish. The latter technique appears to be optimal for this purpose, since it is fast, sensitive, tests the genome at several positions, and does not require any preliminary information about the DNA of the two species involved. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have successfully performed interspecific androgenesis between two cyprinid species. Gamma-ray irradiated eggs of common carp were fertilized with fresh and cryopreserved sperm of three different goldfish varieties and the haploid embryos were then heat-shocked to restore diploidy and to produce viable offspring. Androgenic diploid goldfish progenies from over a dozen different experiments were screened for four phenotypic markers several times. Color and other phenotypic markers characteristic of goldfish were found exclusively among androgenetic goldfish progenies; no markers originating from common carp were detected in over 1500 individuals investigated visually.RAPD assay was used to compare the parents and the offspring at the genomic level. The RAPD pattern of the androgenetic goldfish contained exclusively paternal bands, thereby confirming the results of the phenotypic analysis. According to our knowledge, this is the first successful interspecific androgenesis performed with two different species resulting in viable offspring.Key words: RAPD, whole genome manipulation, nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibility.
"The high polymorphism of DNA fingerprinting comes from the high variation of minisatellite loci in genomic DNA ( Jeffreys et al. 1985a, b), so its genetic mechanism to detect DNA variation was different from other molecular genetic marker systems, such as RFLP, RAPD and AFLP. Owing to its advantages as individual specificity, simple and stable heritage, highly variation, multiple locus and somatic cell stability , it has already been extensively used in many aquaculture research fields, such as genetic variation , population genetics, species identification, phylogenetics and classification (Hallerman & Beckmann 1988; Castelli et al. 1990; Taggart & Ferguson 1990; Carter et al. 1991; Harris et al. 1991; Rico et al. 1991; Wirgin et al. 1991; Bentzen et al. 1991, 1993; Wright 1993; Bosworth et al. 1994; Gross et al. 1994; Heath et al. 1994; Taylor 1995; Majumdar et al. 1997; Siraj et al. 1998). This study showed that highly polymorphic DNA fingerprints could be obtained on five parental lines and their F 1 hybrids therefore it was ideal to adopt human minisatellite 33.6 as a non-homologous probe to do fish DNA fingerprinting under the circumstance without a proper homologous minisatellite probe cloned from fish genomic DNA at present. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One Tilapia hybridization, Oreochromis aureus, (Steindachner) ♂ × Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus) ♀, and two common carp, Cyprinus carpio, (Linnaeus) ♂, hybridizations, Russian mirror carp ♂ × Xingguo red carp ♀, and German mirror carp ♂ × Xingguo red carp ♀ were used to study the feasibility of predicting heterosis using genetic distance from DNA fingerprinting. The results indicated that highly polymorphic DNA fingerprints could be obtained with human minisatellite 33.6 as a probe on the studied varieties. The within-population similarity indices of O. aureus, O. niloticus, Russian mirror carp, German mirror carp and Xingguo red carp were 0.785, 0.577, 0.432, 0.348 and 0.339 respectively. The similarity indices between F1 and their parents of three hybridization combinations were not significantly different (P > 0.05). There were larger genetic distances between two hybridization combinations, O. aureus♂ × O. niloticus♀ and Russian mirror carp ♂ × Xingguo red carp ♀, which showed heterosis in production and were extensively used in Chinese aquaculture. The genetic distance between O. aureus♂ and O. niloticus♀ was 0.338, and that between Russian mirror carp and Xingguo red carp was 0.344. However, the genetic distance between German mirror carp and Xingguo red carp was 0.129; this corresponded with the fact that their F1 generation did not show heterosis in the Chinese fish hybridization experiment. The study suggested that genetic distance could be used to predict fish heterosis.
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