Electroforming Process and Application to Micro/Macro Manufacturing

University of Edinburgh, School of Mechanical Engineering, Edinburgh, UK
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology (Impact Factor: 2.54). 12/2001; 50(2):499-514. DOI: 10.1016/S0007-8506(07)62990-4

ABSTRACT Electroforming is the highly specialised use of electrodeposition for the manufacture of metal parts. This paper describes the process principles and mechanisms of electroforming, outlining its advantages and limitations. A review of modelling and simulation of electroforming and experimental analysis work is also presented. The metals that can be electroformed successfully are copper, nickel, iron or silver, thickness up to 16 mm, dimensional tolerances up to 1 μm, and surface finishes of 0.05 μm Ra. The ability to manufacture complex parts to close tolerances and cost effectively has meant that electroforming has applications both in traditional/macro manufacturing and new micromanufacturing fields. These include tooling; mould making; fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and the combination of lithography, electroforming and plastic moulding in the LIGA process. Applications in micro-optics and medicine are included.

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    • "The modified conformal-evaporatedfilm-by-rotation (CEFR) method [9] was used to conformally deposit a ~500-nm-thick film of nickel on the upper surface of the euthanized female EAB. The nickel thin film was then strengthened by electroforming [17] to yield the negative nickel die. The positive epoxy die was made from the negative nickel die using several casting steps and one application of the CEFR method. "
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    ABSTRACT: Polymeric visual decoys of beetle of an invasive species called the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, are highly efficacious in luring and trapping EAB males. Although industrially scalable, the bioreplication process to fabricate these decoys involves several operational steps. In a simpler bioreplication process devised by us, a multi-cavity negative die of nickel is made from an array of several EAB females. This die is used to fabricate multiple decoys simultaneously by casting and thermal curing of poly(dimethyl siloxane). Finally, the decoys are sprayed by first a black paint and then a metallic green paint. The new bioreplication process has considerably fewer operational steps than its predecessor and can be adopted by industry.
    Journal of Bionic Engineering 04/2015; 12(2). DOI:10.1016/S1672-6529(14)60118-9 · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    • "ore , electro - forming was proposed and selected as an alternative solution . The electroforming technique ( Rodia , 1995 ) is widely used in the high - precision production of small components , such as microwave devices , EDM electrodes , and MEMS , or of molds for plastics ( Hou et al . , 2007 ; Hsieh et al . , 2008 ; Johansen et al . , 2000 ; McGeough et al . , ( 2001 ) ; Yarlagadda et al . , 2001 ; Zhu et al . , 2008 ) . The metal typically used in the electroform - ing process is nickel ( Grigore , 2000 ; Yarlagadda et al . , 2001 ) because it simplifies work and enables the creation of mechani - cally resistant thick layers . Nickel also follows the morphology Figure 5 Steps in constructing the Ca"
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    ABSTRACT: Inaugurated in June 2012, the Carapace at Castelbuono Estate Winery in Italy is a highly interesting example of biomorphic architecture. The structure, an artistic creation of world-renowned sculptor Arnaldo Pomodoro, is reminiscent of a tortoise shell that conveys a sense of protection: the Carapace structure guards wine barriques in the same way that the tortoise carapace protects the animal. Zoomorphic aspects are further exhibited by symbols on the roof, which remind observers of cuttlefish bone, a recurring element in the artistic production of Maestro Pomodoro. The roof was constructed by assembly of single copper plates with a rough surface in accordance with the design of the artist. Therefore, determining the appropriate production process was crucial. Electroforming was selected as the method to achieve a challenging architectural goal.
    12/2013; 2(4). DOI:10.1016/j.foar.2013.08.004
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    • "For example, there are many micro metal parts or components in the impeller unit, transmission unit and manipulation unit of micro air vehicle. So far, micromachining techniques [1] include lithography, electro discharge machining (EDM), ultrasonic machining, electrochemical micromachining (EMM) and so on. EMM is an electrochemical dissolution process that has many advantages such as no tool wear, stress-free, with smooth surfaces and the ability to machine complex structures in metallic materials, regardless of their hardness and high strength, high tension, or whether they are heat-resistant metals. "
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    ABSTRACT: Electrochemical micromachining (EMM) technology for fabricating micro structures is presented in this article. By applying ultra short pulses, dissolution of a workpiece can be restricted to the region very close to the electrode. First, an EMM system for meeting the requirements of the EMM process is established. Second, sets of experiments is carried out to investigate the influence of some of the predominant electrochemical process parameters such as electrical parameters, feed rate, electrode geometry features and electrolyte composition on machining quality, especially the influences of pulse on time on shape precision and working end shape of electrode on machined surface quality. Finally, after the preliminary experiments, a complex microstructure with good shape precision and surface quality is successfully obtained.
    Chinese Journal of Aeronautics 10/2010; 23(5):578-584. DOI:10.1016/S1000-9361(09)60257-0 · 0.69 Impact Factor
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