Electroforming Process and Application to Micro/Macro Manufacturing
ABSTRACT Electroforming is the highly specialised use of electrodeposition for the manufacture of metal parts. This paper describes the process principles and mechanisms of electroforming, outlining its advantages and limitations. A review of modelling and simulation of electroforming and experimental analysis work is also presented. The metals that can be electroformed successfully are copper, nickel, iron or silver, thickness up to 16 mm, dimensional tolerances up to 1 μm, and surface finishes of 0.05 μm Ra. The ability to manufacture complex parts to close tolerances and cost effectively has meant that electroforming has applications both in traditional/macro manufacturing and new micromanufacturing fields. These include tooling; mould making; fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and the combination of lithography, electroforming and plastic moulding in the LIGA process. Applications in micro-optics and medicine are included.
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- ARCHIVE Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 1959-1982 (vols 1-23) 01/1979; 21(6):411-417.
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ABSTRACT: Micro-optics is usually associated with planar waveguides or integrated optical circuits. In this case the propagation of light is restricted to one or two dimensions, and the three-dimensional nature of light propagation is disregarded. We present a method of fabricating three-dimensional micro-optical components by the so-called LIGA process, a lithography, electroforming, and plastic molding process in which poly(methyl methacrylate) is structured by high-energy synchrotron radiation. We demonstrate an experimental system of image formation that uses microprisms and microlenses for a threedimensional microintegration of optical components.Applied Optics 11/1993; 32(32):6464-9. · 1.69 Impact Factor