CD-free Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar modules with In2S3 buffer layer by ALCVD
ABSTRACT The atomic layer chemical vapour deposition (ALCVD) technique allows the deposition of highly homogeneous thin-films with an excellent step coverage. This method has already shown promising results for the deposition of cadmium-free buffer layers in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin-film solar cells (13.5% efficiency with indium sulphide buffer). In this work, the process has been up-scaled to module areas of up to 30×30 cm2. The indium sulphide buffer layer was deposited at substrate temperatures between 160 and 220 °C using indium acetylacetonate and hydrogen sulphide precursors. An efficiency of η=10.8% (open-circuit voltage, VOC=592 mV; fill factor, FF=62%; current density, jSC=29.5 mA/cm2) for a module area of 30×30 cm2 has been achieved. For laboratory cells even an efficiency of 14.9% was realised. Damp heat stability testing of CIGS mini-modules indicates a similar behaviour of both devices with ALCVD indium sulphide and solution grown cadmium-sulphide buffer layer.