CD-free Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar modules with In2S3 buffer layer by ALCVD
ABSTRACT The atomic layer chemical vapour deposition (ALCVD) technique allows the deposition of highly homogeneous thin-films with an excellent step coverage. This method has already shown promising results for the deposition of cadmium-free buffer layers in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin-film solar cells (13.5% efficiency with indium sulphide buffer). In this work, the process has been up-scaled to module areas of up to 30×30 cm2. The indium sulphide buffer layer was deposited at substrate temperatures between 160 and 220 °C using indium acetylacetonate and hydrogen sulphide precursors. An efficiency of η=10.8% (open-circuit voltage, VOC=592 mV; fill factor, FF=62%; current density, jSC=29.5 mA/cm2) for a module area of 30×30 cm2 has been achieved. For laboratory cells even an efficiency of 14.9% was realised. Damp heat stability testing of CIGS mini-modules indicates a similar behaviour of both devices with ALCVD indium sulphide and solution grown cadmium-sulphide buffer layer.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present contribution is to give a review on the recent work concerning Cd-free buffer and window layers in chalcopyrite solar cells using various deposition techniques as well as on their adaptation to chalcopyrite-type absorbers such as Cu(In,Ga)Se2, CuInS2, or Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2. The corresponding solar-cell performances, the expected technological problems, and current attempts for their commercialization will be discussed. The most important deposition techniques developed in this paper are chemical bath deposition, atomic layer deposition, ILGAR deposition, evaporation, and spray deposition. These deposition methods were employed essentially for buffers based on the following three materials: In2S3, ZnS, Zn1 − xMgxO.Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications 09/2010; 18(6):411–433. · 7.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The post-deposition heat treatment (annealing) for the electrochemically deposited thin film is often necessary in order to improve its crystallinity. In the present study, the electrochemically deposited indium sulfide oxide thin film was an-nealed in sulphure atmosphere for 60 min at 150˚C and 300˚C. The impact of the annealing process on the composition, crystal structure, and surface morphology of the thin film was investigated. In addition, superstrate heterojunction solar cells based on the annealed film as a buffer layer and tin sulphide as an active layer were fabricated and characterized. They showed diode-like behavior under dark condition and a relatively small photovoltaic effect under AM1.5 illumi-nation condition.