Simultaneous biodesulphurization and denitrification using an oil reservoir microbial culture: Effects of sulphide loading rate and sulphide to nitrate loading ratio
ABSTRACT Biooxidation of sulphide under denitrifying conditions is a key process in control of souring in oil reservoirs and in treatment of gas and liquids contaminated with sulphide and nitrate. In this work, biooxidation of sulphide was studied using a representative culture originated from an oil reservoir. Effects of sulphide concentration, sulphide to nitrate molar ratio, and loading rates of sulphide and nitrate on their removal rates and composition of the end products were investigated. In the batch system sulphide removal rate passed through a maximum as sulphide concentration was increased from 2.1 to 16.3 mM, with the highest rate (2.06 mM h−1) observed with 10.7 mM sulphide. Nitrate removal was coupled to sulphide oxidation and the highest removal rate was 1.05 mM h−1. In the continuous bioreactors fed with 10 and 5, 15 and 7.5, and 20 and 10 mM sulphide and nitrate, cell wash-out occurred as dilution rate was increased above 0.15, 0.13 and 0.08 h−1, respectively. Prior to cell wash-out linear increases in sulphide and nitrate removal rates were observed as loading rate was increased. The highest sulphide and nitrate removal rates of 2.0 and 0.92 mM h−1 were obtained in the bioreactor fed with 15 mM sulphide and 7.5 mM nitrate at loading rates of 2.1 and 0.93 mM h−1, respectively. Short residence times and high sulphide to nitrate ratios promoted the formation of sulphur, a desired end product for ex situ treatment of contaminated streams. Combination of long residence times and low sulphide to nitrate ratios, which favours formation of sulphate, is the suitable strategy for in situ removal of H2S from oil reservoirs.
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ABSTRACT: Wastewater from petroleum refining may contain a number of undesirable contaminants including sulfides, phenolic compounds, and ammonia. The concentrations of these compounds must be reduced to acceptable levels before discharge. Sulfur formation and the effect of selected phenolic compounds on the sulfide oxidation were studied in autotrophic aerobic cultures. A recirculation reactor system was implemented to improve the elemental sulfur recovery. The relation between oxygen and sulfide was determined calculating the O2/S2- loading rates (Q(O2)/Q(S)2- = Rmt), which adequately defined the operation conditions to control the sulfide oxidation. Sulfur-producing steady states were achieved at Rmt ranging from 0.5 to 1.5. The maximum sulfur formation occurred at Rmt of 0.5 where 85% of the total sulfur added to the reactor as sulfide was transformed to elemental sulfur and 90% of it was recovered from the bottom of the reactor. Sulfide was completely oxidized to sulfate (Rmt of 2) in a stirred tank reactor, even when a mixture of phenolic compounds was present in the medium. Microcosm experiments showed that carbon dioxide production increased in the presence of the phenols, suggesting that these compounds were oxidized and that they may have been used as carbon and energy source by heterotrophic microorganisms present in the consortium.Environmental Science and Technology 03/2004; 38(3):918-23. · 5.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An alternative flowchart for the biological removal of hydrogen sulfide from oil-refining wastewater is presented; autotrophic denitrification in a multi-stage treatment plant was utilized. A pilot-scale plant was fed with a mixture of the following constituents: (a) original wastewater from an oil refining industry (b), the effluent of the existing nitrification-stage treatment plant and (c) sulfide in the form of Na2S. Anoxic sulfide to sulfate oxidation, with nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor, proved very successful, as incoming concentrations of 110 mg S2-/L were totally converted to SO(4)2-. At complete denitrification, the concentration of S2- in the reactor effluent was less than 0.1mg/L. Fluctuating S2- concentration in the feed could be tolerated without any problems, as the accumulated sulfide in the effluent of the denitrification stage is oxidized aerobically in a subsequent activated-sludge treatment stage. This alternative new treatment scheme was further introduced at the refinery's wastewater processing plant. Thus, complete H2S removal is now accomplished by the combination of the proposed biological method and the existing stripping with CO2. As a result, stripping, and thus its cost, is reduced by 70%.Water Research 11/2005; 39(17):4101-9. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Produced water from the Coleville oil field in Saskatchewan, Canada was used to inoculate continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors. When 7.8 mM sulfate and 25 mM lactate were present in the in-flowing medium, H(2)S production (souring) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was prevented by addition of 17.5 mM nitrate or 20 mM nitrite. Changing the sulfate or lactate concentration of the in-flowing medium indicated that the concentrations of nitrate or nitrite required for containment of souring decreased proportionally with a lowered concentration of the electron donor lactate, while the sulfate concentration of the medium had no effect. Microbial communities were dominated by SRB. Nitrate addition did not give rise to changes in community composition, indicating that lactate oxidation and H(2)S removal were caused by the combined action of SRB and nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). Apparently the nitrite concentrations formed by these NR-SOB did not inhibit the SRB sufficiently to cause community shifts. In contrast, significant community shifts were observed upon direct addition of high concentrations (20 mM) of nitrite. Strains NO3A and NO2B, two newly isolated, nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) emerged as major community members. These were found to belong to the epsilon-division of the Proteobacteria, to be most closely related to Campylobacter lari, and to oxidize lactate with nitrate or nitrite as the electron acceptor. Thus the mechanism of microbial H(2)S removal in up-flow packed-bed bioreactors depended on whether nitrate (SRB/NR-SOB) or nitrite (SRB/NR-SOB as well as NRB) was used. However, the amount of nitrate or nitrite needed to completely remove H(2)S was dictated by the electron donor (lactate) concentration, irrespective of mechanism.Biotechnology Progress 01/2003; 19(2):338-45. · 1.85 Impact Factor