A study of reception with the use of focused ultrasound. II. Effects on the animal receptor structure

Brain Research (Impact Factor: 2.84). 11/1977; 135(2):279-85. DOI: 10.1016/0006-8993(77)91031-9
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The possibility of stimulation of receptor structures with focused ultrasound (focused beam of high frequency mechanical waves) was investigated. Stimulation of single Pacinian corpuscle isolated from cat's mesentery resulted in receptor and action potentials. Stimulation of frog's ear labyrinth resulted in evoked potentials recorded from midbrain auditory area, their characteristics being much the same as those for responses to adequate sound stimuli. It is concluded that focused ultrasound is an advantageous agent for stimulation of various mechanoreceptors both isolated and, especially, located deep in the body. Some problems related to sensory specificity are discussed.

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Available from: Leonid Rafailovich Gavrilov, Oct 05, 2015
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    • "Ultrasound effects on the structures of the central and peripheral nervous system have received previous attention, and the ability to induce irreversible histological change with sufficient intensity has been demonstrated (Fry et al., 1954b; Ballantine et al., 1956; Lele, 1967). At acoustic energy depositions below these levels, reversible functional effects in neural systems have been observed without apparent histological alteration, including direct stimulation of neurons in vivo (Gavrilov et al., 1973; Gavrilov et al., 1977a) and in vitro (Mori et al., 1987; Gavrilov et al., 1978), suppression or blockading of action potentials (Young and Henneman, 1961a; Young and Henneman, 1961b; Fry and Fry, 1958), and direct modification of receptor potentials in mechanoreceptors (Gavrilov et al., 1977b). Reversible effects have also been reported on the electrical characteristics of other tissue types, including electrical conduction in frog muscle (Welkowitz and Fry, 1956), mammalian myocardium (Mortimer et al., 1984) and frog skin (Coble and Dunn, 1976). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study is aimed at elucidating the response of neural membranes to temporally specific acoustic impulses and utilizing this information to better understand the electrochemical microstructure of such membranes. We have found that single, short duration, low energy, pulses of ultrasound delivered at specific times within a window of about 50 msec proceeding a standard electrical stimulus appreciably changes the compound action potential (CAP) evoked. These ultrasonic pulses were focused, 2 to 7 MHz, 0.5 msec durations and had peak intensities of temperature rises less than 0.025 C which would preclude bulk heating as a basis of the effect. When used as the prestimulus, neither an electrical pulse nor an Rf burst would produce similar effects on the CAP. Low frequency mechanical prestimuli, delivered by a vibrating stylus, does however mimic the effect of an ultrasound pulse. At this point in our investigation it appears that the low frequency radiation pressure transient produced by the ultrasound pulse is the proximal effector and, it is acting on relatively slow stretch-sensitive channels in the neural membrane.
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    ABSTRACT: Nine traditional Healers, 12 of their Patients, 11 Healer Simulators, and 20 Patient Controls participated in a study to examine a variety of physiological concomitants of the "laying-on of hands." Focused ultrasound was used to obtain participants' tactile-sensitivity thresholds. Tactile thresholds were re-examined: (1) after healing interactions (Healers, Patients), (2) after simulated healing interventions (Healer Simulators), or (3) after rest intervals with no prior healing-related activity (Patient Controls). Presession to postsession changes for the four groups of participants were examined with Repeated Measures Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for age. The ANCOVA found a significant Main Effect of Group (F = 31.20, df = 3,34, p < .0001). Post-hoc Tukey tests determined that changes in Healers' right-hand fingertip thresholds were significantly different from changes in the right-hand fingertip thresholds of Patients, Healer Simulators, and Patient Controls. Patients' right-hand fingertip-threshold change also differed significantly from that of Patient Controls. Repeated Measures ANCOVA performed on Healers' and Patients' right- and left-hand palm sensitivity thresholds showed a significant Main Effect of Time (Before vs. After) (F = 5.78, df = 1,9, p = .04), and a significant Time x Group interaction (F = 7.04, df = 1,9, p = .02). No significant task-dependent changes were found in auditory reaction-time tests conducted with the four groups of participants. Discussion includes pilot data from a variety of supplementary tests.
    The Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 90.
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    ABSTRACT: The possibility of use of focused ultrasound (focused beam of high-frequency mechanical waves) for stimulation of nerve structures was investigated. The stimulation of human hand resulted in various sensations: tactile, temperature, pain etc. The corresponding thresholds were determined and characteristic features of ultrasonically induced sensations were studied. The modality of temperature sensation (warmth-cold) was found to depend on the environmental temperature. The character of pain was dependent upon the type of tissue stimulated. Effective factors in ultrasonic stimulation are discussed.
    Brain Research 11/1977; 135(2):265-77. DOI:10.1016/0006-8993(77)91030-7 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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