Effect of Soaking on Wet-milling of Rice
ABSTRACT Soaking is an essential step in wet-milling of rice flour. The effects of soaking duration and temperature (5 and 25 °C) on the properties of rice flour have been investigated. The uptake of water by rice kernels increased with temperature and reached a plateau at about 30–35%. Protein, lipid, and ash leached out during soaking. The moisture content after soaking appeared to be a key factor on loosening the structure of rice kernels, which resulted in the production of small particle flours with little starch damage. The particle size of flours did not alter the gelatinisation temperature (Toand Tp) in DSC thermograms. Small particle and low lipid content flours appeared to have high peak viscosity measured by RVA. The change in microstructure of rice kernels during soaking was also examined by SEM.
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ABSTRACT: Highly-ordered mesoporous SBA-15 molecular sieves were successfully synthesized through direct-synthesis using non-ionic surfactants as structure directing agent under strong acidic conditions. The textual and structural properties of the prepared materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), nitrogen physisorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In terms of adsorption properties, the performance was examined by adsorption of dyes on prepared materials. It was observed that SBA-15 exhibited an excellent adsorptive capability of cationic molecules but almost no adsorption to anionic and neutral molecules. The isotherm models, kinetic models, and thermodynamic properties were analyzed to describe the adsorption behavior of prepared materials. Langmuir model, Freundlich model, and pseudo-second-order kinetics were well-fitted in the simulation of the adsorption behavior of dyes on prepared materials. The synthesized mesoporous SBA-15 materials were found to be effective adsorbents for MB and JGB from aqueous solutions.Graphical abstractResearch highlights► The mesoporous SBA-15 materials are effective adsorbents for cationic dyes removal from aqueous solutions. ► The SBA-15 exhibits the ability of selective adsorption for cationic molecules, which is due to the electrochemical interaction between cationic molecules and the negative charges on the SBA-15 surfaces. ► The adsorption isotherms can be well fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich models. ► The adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order model. ► Thermodynamics calculations indicate that the adsorption of cationic molecules on SBA-15 is an exothermic and spontaneous reaction.Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 01/2011; 141:102-109. · 3.37 Impact Factor
- Value in Health 01/2011; 14(7). · 2.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Effect of mixing ratios of canna starch and rice flour (10:90, 20:80, 30:70 and 40:60) on quality of rice paper was investigated. Rice papers produced were analyzed for their morphology, physicochemical and textural properties, as well as sensory evaluation, using rice papers made from rice flour as a reference. In addition, changes in chemical composition and pasting behavior of canna starch and rice flour after soaking in salt water were also studied. Mixing rice flour with canna starch resulted in the increase of smoothness of rice paper, decrease of cracks found on surface and solubility of rice paper in water. Water activities of all rice papers were in the range of 0.50-0.51. Data of the texture analyses showed that the tensile strength and elongation increased with increasing proportion of canna starch, while the cutting force was decreased. Brittleness of rice papers was not significantly different from the control. However, upon observation for 10 months, rice papers made from rice flour were found more cracks and more numbers of broken rice papers. The sensory tests indicated that the acceptance of rice papers made from rice flour mixed with canna starch was comparable to the control. Soaking milled rice flour in salt water for 18 h resulted in the decrease of protein, lipid and amylose contents. as well as pasting viscosity. Pasting viscosity of rice flour and canna starch slightly decreased after soaking in salt water.01/2012;