Effect of Soaking on Wet-milling of Rice
ABSTRACT Soaking is an essential step in wet-milling of rice flour. The effects of soaking duration and temperature (5 and 25 °C) on the properties of rice flour have been investigated. The uptake of water by rice kernels increased with temperature and reached a plateau at about 30–35%. Protein, lipid, and ash leached out during soaking. The moisture content after soaking appeared to be a key factor on loosening the structure of rice kernels, which resulted in the production of small particle flours with little starch damage. The particle size of flours did not alter the gelatinisation temperature (Toand Tp) in DSC thermograms. Small particle and low lipid content flours appeared to have high peak viscosity measured by RVA. The change in microstructure of rice kernels during soaking was also examined by SEM.
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ABSTRACT: Properties of rice flours prepared from milled and broken rice produced by pre-washing and subsequent drying process were investigated. Compared to untreated ordinary milled rice, pre-washing process slightly increased lightness of rice flour, while decreased yellowness. Both WAI and WSI were higher in the flour from pre-washed rice, and gel consistency was the highest in the flour from pre-washed broken rice. Pre-washed rice showed increased amylograph peak viscosity and reduced setback values. On the other hand, pre-washed broken rice showed decreased peak viscosity and increased setback values. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed that the pre-washing process reduced gelatinization onset- and peak temperatures, with increased gelatinization enthalpy. Total bacteria and yeast count were lower in the pre washed rice, suggesting the pre-washing process could partially eliminate microbial contamination of ordinary milled rice. ? ?돀遠?? ??? ??? ? ?돐 ??? ??? ??? ? ?댐 샷?? 죶?? ??? ? ?덐 ??? †Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 01/2005; 34(7).
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated the physicochemical characteristics of wet-milled rice flour treated with pectinase and cellulase in a steeping process. Enzyme treatments were used as follows: pectinase 0.05%, cellulase 0.05%, and mixed enzyme treatments 0.05~0.2%. For particle distribution, rice flour E-treated with mixed enzymes (pectinase 0.05% and cellulase 0.05%) was the finest at 48.3% particle distribution less than . Protein contents and damaged starch were reduced by enzyme treatments. Damaged starch was the lowest (12.1%) in rice flour E compared with non-enzyme treatment (18.1%). Amylose content, water binding capacity, solubility, and swelling power all increased upon enzyme treatments, and their effects increased upon mixed enzyme treatment. For gelatinization characteristics of RVA, peak viscosity, final viscosity, breakdown, and total setback viscosity increased in rice flours treated with mixed enzymes. Especially, in steeping method with mixed enzyme treatment, pectinase 0.05% and cellulase 0.05% treatment was suitable for minimizing damaged starch and high fine particle distribution of rice flours compared with single enzyme treatment.Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 01/2011; 40(9).
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ABSTRACT: Proper roasting is crucial to flavor, color, and texture development in the final product. In recent years, several research studies have been carried out to establish the best optimum roasting conditions for some common edible nuts such as; hazelnut, peanut, and pistachio nut. Although roasting is an important process for nuts and oilseeds, there is little or no information on the development of color, aroma, and textural changes in Terminalia catappa nuts during roasting.Chemistry Central Journal 01/2014; 8(1):55. · 1.31 Impact Factor