Article

Vegetation history and climate of the last 15,000 years at Laghi di Monticchio, southern Italy

Environmental Research Centre, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, U.K.
Quaternary Science Reviews (Impact Factor: 4.57). 01/1996;

ABSTRACT In southern Italy, vegetation contemporary with the end of the last glacial maximum, from 15,000 to 12,000 years ago, is shown by pollen-analysis to have been treeless and steppe-like in character. At 12,500 BP (years before present), Betula (birch) expanded into the steppe, quickly followed by Quercus (oak), Fagus (beech), Tilia (lime) and other tree genera of mesic forest. High percentages of Tilia point to a rich mesic forest that was contemporary with the ‘Allerød’ interstadial of northern Europe. A major decline in mesic trees with an accompanying return of Betula and steppe genera dated to 10,500 years ago identifies a ‘Younger Dryas’ climatic reversal. Betula and steppe genera were replaced by forest of Quercus and other mesic trees, notably Ulmus (elm), as the Holocene began. In the later Holocene, ca. 4000 years ago, Abies (fir), Carpinus betulus (hornbeam) and Taxus (yew) appeared. Abies and Taxus became extinct locally about 2500 years ago, either because of climatic change, or perhaps because of the effects of early agriculture. The Full-glacial climate is thought to have been cold and summer-dry with mainly winter precipitation. The Lateglacial ‘Bølling-Allerød’ Interstadial was summer-wet and warm. The response-surface based climate reconstruction indicates an early Holocene climate with markedly colder winter conditions than today, about −5°C compared with 3.9°C today as a mean temperature for the coldest month. The annual temperature sum is reconstructed as somewhat higher than today, 3500 degree days as compared with a calculated value of 2900 for today. The later Holocene had a climate like today's. Rainfall, and variation in its seasonal distribution, has been a critical determinant of the vegetation cover. The fossil pollen record at Laghi Di Monticchio has been complemented by diatom and plant macrofossil studies which provide evidence of former lake environments as well as data on the upland forest. Lake levels remained high during the Full- and Lateglacial with encroachment of shore vegetation during the Holocene. The sediments also have an exceptionally rich record of tephra falls which are of importance in dating and core correlation. Twenty-one macroscopically visible tephras occur in sediments of the last 15,000 years.

2 Followers
 · 
117 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A phytosociological study regarding the silver fir woodlands of the Basilicata and Campania regions is here presented. In the administrative territory of Basilicata, Abies alba occurs both in the Quercus cerris woodlands of the sub-montane belt (Physospermo-Quercetum cerridis abietetosum albae subass. nova) and in the Fagus sylvatica woodlands (Anemono-Fagetum, Aceri lobelii-Fagetum, Ranunculo brutii-Fagetum) along the whole altitudinal range of the montane belt. In phytosociological terms the presence of Abies alba within these community types is expressed as a " relictual/residual variant ". In the Campania region, in particular in the Alburni mountains, Abies alba occurs, in impoverished populations, almost exclusively in the montane belt of Fagus sylvatica woodlands (Anemono-Fagetum). In the Mount Motola massif, however, where the silver fir finds its best expression in the regional territory, the species is abundant especially in the upper part of the submontane horizon, where it forms a peculiar woodland type together with Fagus sylvatica, Ostrya carpinifolia and Acer obtusatum. For this community type a new sub-association named Anemono-Fagetum ostryetosum is here proposed. Riassunto Contributo alla conoscenza dei boschi con abete bianco della Campania e della Basilicata.Viene presentato in questo lavoro una caratterizzazione fitosociologica dei boschi di abete bianco in Basilicata e in parte della Campania (Parco Nazionale del Cilento). Nel territorio lucano Abies alba compare sia nei boschi a dominanza di Quercus cerris dell'orizzonte submontano (Physospermo-Quercetum cerridis abietetosum albae subass. nova) che in diverse tipologie di bosco a Fagus sylvatica (Anemono-Fagetum, Aceri lobelii-Fagetum, Ranunculo brutii-Fagetum) lungo tutto l'intervallo altitudinale del piano montano. La presenza dell'abete in tali comunità, viene espressa in termini sintassonomici attraverso la forma di " variante relittuale/residuale ". In Campania, in particolare sul massiccio dei monti Alburni, Abies alba compare, in popolamenti molto ridotti, solo all'interno dei boschi a Fagus sylvatica della fascia montana appartenenti all'Anemono-Fagetum. Al contrario sul massiccio di monte Motola, l'abete bianco, che proprio qui trova la sua migliore espressione a livello regionale, è presente in abbondanza già nell'orizzonte sub-montano, dove, assieme a Fagus sylvatica, Ostrya carpinifolia ed Acer obtusatum, forma una cenosi piuttosto peculiare per la quale si propone una nuova sub-associazione denominata Anemono-Fagetum ostryetosum. Parole chiave: abete bianco, boschi mesofili, corotipi, fitosociologia, forme biologiche, Italia meridionale, sintassonomia.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A phytosociological study regarding the silver fir woodlands of the Basilicata and Campania regions is here presented. In the administrative territory of Basilicata, Abies alba occurs both in the Quercus cerris woodlands of the sub-montane belt (Physospermo-Quercetum cerridis abietetosum albae subass. nova) and in the Fagus sylvatica woodlands (Anemono-Fagetum, Aceri lobelii-Fagetum, Ranunculo brutii-Fagetum) along the whole altitudinal range of the montane belt. In phytosociological terms the presence of Abies alba within these community types is expressed as a " relictual/residual variant ". In the Campania region, in particular in the Alburni mountains, Abies alba occurs, in impoverished populations, almost exclusively in the montane belt of Fagus sylvatica woodlands (Anemono-Fagetum). In the Mount Motola massif, however, where the silver fir finds its best expression in the regional territory, the species is abundant especially in the upper part of the submontane horizon, where it forms a peculiar woodland type together with Fagus sylvatica, Ostrya carpinifolia and Acer obtusatum. For this community type a new sub-association named Anemono-Fagetum ostryetosum is here proposed. Riassunto Contributo alla conoscenza dei boschi con abete bianco della Campania e della Basilicata.Viene presentato in questo lavoro una caratterizzazione fitosociologica dei boschi di abete bianco in Basilicata e in parte della Campania (Parco Nazionale del Cilento). Nel territorio lucano Abies alba compare sia nei boschi a dominanza di Quercus cerris dell'orizzonte submontano (Physospermo-Quercetum cerridis abietetosum albae subass. nova) che in diverse tipologie di bosco a Fagus sylvatica (Anemono-Fagetum, Aceri lobelii-Fagetum, Ranunculo brutii-Fagetum) lungo tutto l'intervallo altitudinale del piano montano. La presenza dell'abete in tali comunità, viene espressa in termini sintassonomici attraverso la forma di " variante relittuale/residuale ". In Campania, in particolare sul massiccio dei monti Alburni, Abies alba compare, in popolamenti molto ridotti, solo all'interno dei boschi a Fagus sylvatica della fascia montana appartenenti all'Anemono-Fagetum. Al contrario sul massiccio di monte Motola, l'abete bianco, che proprio qui trova la sua migliore espressione a livello regionale, è presente in abbondanza già nell'orizzonte sub-montano, dove, assieme a Fagus sylvatica, Ostrya carpinifolia ed Acer obtusatum, forma una cenosi piuttosto peculiare per la quale si propone una nuova sub-associazione denominata Anemono-Fagetum ostryetosum. Parole chiave: abete bianco, boschi mesofili, corotipi, fitosociologia, forme biologiche, Italia meridionale, sintassonomia.
    Fitosociologia 01/2005; 42(1):71-95.
  • Source
    Modalità insediative; 01/2007