Synthesis and antitrypanosomal evaluation of E-isomers of 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde and 5-nitrothiophene-2-carboxaldehyde semicarbazone derivatives. Structure–activity relationships.
ABSTRACT Several novel semicarbazone derivatives were prepared from 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde or 5-nitrothiophene-2-carboxaldehyde and semicarbazides bearing a spermidine-mimetic moiety. All derivatives presented the E-configuration, as determined by NMR-NOE experiments. These compounds were tested in vitro as potential antitrypanosomal agents, and some of them, together with the parent compounds, 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde and 5-nitrothiophene-2-carboxaldehyde semicarbazone derivatives, were also evaluated in vivo using infected mice. Structure–activity relationship studies were carried out using voltammetric response and lipophilic–hydrophilic balance as parameters. Two of the compounds (1 and 3) displayed the highest in vivo activity. A correlation was found between lipophilic–hydrophilic properties and trypanocidal activity, high RM values being associated with low in vivo effects.
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ABSTRACT: The in vitro activity of four 2-nitropropene derivatives, 1-(3-benzothienyl)-2-nitropropene (N1), 1-(3-thienyl)-2-nitropropene (N2), 1-(5-bromo-2-thienyl)-2-nitropropene (N3) and 1-(4-bromo-2-thienyl)-2-nitropropene (N4), were tested against cultures of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Cytotoxicity studies were performed using Vero cells. The blood trypomastigotes, amastigotes and epimastigotes showed differential degrees of sensitivity towards the four tested compounds; the highest activity against the epimastigotes and blood tripomastigotes was exhibited by N1, followed by N3, N4 and finally N2. In contrast, whereas the compounds N1, N3 and N4 exerted similar magnitudes of activity against amastigotes, N2 was found to be a much less potent compound. According to our results, the compound N1 had the highest level of activity (IC50: 0.6 microM) against epimastigotes.Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 11/2009; 104(7):980-5. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this "Critical Review" we made a historical introduction of drugs assayed against Chagas disease beginning in 1912 with the works of Mayer and Rocha Lima up to the experimental use of nitrofurazone. In the beginning of the 70s, nifurtimox and benznidazole were introduced for clinical treatment, but results showed a great variability and there is still a controversy about their use for chronic cases. After the introduction of these nitroheterocycles only a few compounds were assayed in chagasic patients. The great advances in vector control in the South Cone countries, and the demonstration of parasite in chronic patients indicated the urgency to discuss the etiologic treatment during this phase, reinforcing the need to find drugs with more efficacy and less toxicity. We also review potential targets in the parasite and present a survey about new classes of synthetic and natural compounds studied after 1992/1993, with which we intend to give to the reader a general view about experimental studies in the area of the chemotherapy of Chagas disease, complementing the previous papers of Brener (1979) and De Castro (1993).Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 02/2002; 97(1):3-24. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Benzaldehyde semicarbazone (BS) inhibited zymosan writhing response, carrageenan paw edema and both phases of formaldehyde nociceptive response. 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde semicarbazone (2-OHBS) and semicarbazide inhibited carrageenan paw edema and the second phase of formaldehyde nociceptive response. 2-OHBS inhibited zymosan writhing response. 3- and 4-OHBS did not show such activities. 2-OHBS showed the lowest LUMO energy, the highest contribution of the iminic carbon to LUMO energy, the highest positive charge on the iminic carbon, the highest negative charge on the iminic nitrogen and the highest susceptibility to hydrolysis. Hence semicarbazide may play important roles in 2-OHBS's activities. Inhibition of the first phase of formaldehyde response by BS could be attributed to its higher hydrophobicity and lower susceptibility to hydrolysis in comparison to 2-OHBS.European journal of medicinal chemistry 02/2012; 50:140-8. · 3.27 Impact Factor