Synthesis and antitrypanosomal evaluation of E-isomers of 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde and 5-nitrothiophene-2-carboxaldehyde semicarbazone derivatives. Structure–activity relationships.
ABSTRACT Several novel semicarbazone derivatives were prepared from 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde or 5-nitrothiophene-2-carboxaldehyde and semicarbazides bearing a spermidine-mimetic moiety. All derivatives presented the E-configuration, as determined by NMR-NOE experiments. These compounds were tested in vitro as potential antitrypanosomal agents, and some of them, together with the parent compounds, 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde and 5-nitrothiophene-2-carboxaldehyde semicarbazone derivatives, were also evaluated in vivo using infected mice. Structure–activity relationship studies were carried out using voltammetric response and lipophilic–hydrophilic balance as parameters. Two of the compounds (1 and 3) displayed the highest in vivo activity. A correlation was found between lipophilic–hydrophilic properties and trypanocidal activity, high RM values being associated with low in vivo effects.
- Medicina 02/1980; 40 Suppl 1:10-6. · 0.42 Impact Factor
- Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 12/1964; 7:710-6. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Parasitic trypanosomatids comprise causative agents of debilitating or life-threatening tropical diseases. The limited capacity of these parasites to cope with oxidative stress has been discussed as a target area for therapeutic approaches but success has been hampered by a lack of comprehension of their peculiar oxidant defense system depending on the unique redox metabolite trypanothione. Here we report that trypanothione-dependent hydroperoxide metabolism in Crithidia fasciculata is catalysed by two distinct proteins working in concert. One is Cf16, a unique protein which, apart from a WCPPC sequence that resembles the thioredoxin-type WCG(A)PC motif, only shows low similarity to thioredoxin-like proteins of bacteria and invertebrates. The second component is Cf21, which can be classified as a member of the peroxiredoxin family of proteins. The two proteins have been purified to homogeneity and shown to be essential for the trypanothione-dependent removal of hydroperoxides. By means of selective derivatisation of the substrate-reduced proteins the flux of reduction equivalents from trypanothione to Cf16, Cf21 and finally to the hydroperoxide was elucidated. Cf21 proved to be a moderately efficient peroxidase with broad specificity. The rate constants for the reaction of the reduced protein with H2O2, t-butyl hydroperoxide, linoleic acid hydroperoxide and phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide were 1.0 x 10(5), 1.2 x 10(5), 1.0 x 10(5) and 0.4 x 10(5) M-1S-1, respectively. The apparent rate constant for the regeneration of reduced Cf21 by Cf16 was in the range of 1.5-3.5 x 10(6) M-1S-1. This newly discovered metabolic pathway adds two further candidates to the list of potential targets for trypanocidal drugs.Biological Chemistry 09/1997; 378(8):827-36. · 2.96 Impact Factor