Synthesis and antitrypanosomal evaluation of E-isomers of 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde and 5-nitrothiophene-2-carboxaldehyde semicarbazone derivatives. Structure–activity relationships.
ABSTRACT Several novel semicarbazone derivatives were prepared from 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde or 5-nitrothiophene-2-carboxaldehyde and semicarbazides bearing a spermidine-mimetic moiety. All derivatives presented the E-configuration, as determined by NMR-NOE experiments. These compounds were tested in vitro as potential antitrypanosomal agents, and some of them, together with the parent compounds, 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde and 5-nitrothiophene-2-carboxaldehyde semicarbazone derivatives, were also evaluated in vivo using infected mice. Structure–activity relationship studies were carried out using voltammetric response and lipophilic–hydrophilic balance as parameters. Two of the compounds (1 and 3) displayed the highest in vivo activity. A correlation was found between lipophilic–hydrophilic properties and trypanocidal activity, high RM values being associated with low in vivo effects.
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ABSTRACT: We describe the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of conformationally-locked 5'-acyl sulfamoyl adenosine derivatives as new parasitic inhibitors against Trypanosoma and Leishmania. The conformationally-locked (3'-endo, North-type) nucleosides have been synthesized by covalently attaching a 4'-CH(2)-O-2' bridge () across C2'-C4' of adenosine in order to reduce the conformational flexibility of the pentose ring. This is designed to decrease the entropic penalty for complex formation with the target protein, which may improve free-energy of stabilization of the complex leading to improved potency. Conformationally-locked 5'-acyl sulfamoyl adenosine derivatives (16-22) were tested against parasitic protozoans for the first time in this work, and showed potent inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma rhodesiense and Leishmania infantum with IC(50) = 0.25-0.51 μM. In particular, the potent 5'-pentanyl acyl sulfamoyl adenosine derivative 17 (IC(50) = 0.25 μM) against intracellular L. infantum amastigotes and Trypanosoma subspecies is interesting in view of its almost insignificant cytotoxicity in murine macrophage host cells (CC(50) >4 μM) and in diploid human fibroblasts MRC-5 cell lines (CC(50) 4 μM). This work also suggests that variable alkyl chain length of the acyl group on the acylsulfamoyl side chain at 5' can modulate the toxicity of 5'-O-sulfamoylnucleoside analogues. This conformationally-locked sulfamoyl adenosine scaffold presents some interesting possibilities for further drug design and lead optimization.Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 06/2012; 10(30):6121-9. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A series of novel artemisinin derivatives were synthesized from artemisinin and different anilines. All compounds were obtained as β-isomers. The target compounds were evaluated for inhibition activity against Plasmodium falciparum falcipain-2 in vitro, and most of them exhibited potent inhibition in the low micromolar range and proved to be new types of falcipain-2 inhibitors.Archives of Pharmacal Research 09/2012; 35(9):1525-31. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Here we report identification of new lead compounds based on quinoline and indenoquinolines with variable side chains as antiprotozoal agents. Quinolines 32, 36 and 37 (Table 1) and indenoquinoline derivatives 14 and 23 (Table 2) inhibit the in vitro growth of the Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense subspecies and Leishmania infantum with IC50=0.25μM. These five compounds have superior activity to that of the front-line drugs such as benznidazole, nifurtimox and comparable to amphotericin B. Thus these compounds constitute new 'leads' for further structure-activity studies as potential active antiprotozoal agents.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 01/2013; 23:2750–2758. · 2.65 Impact Factor