Article

Characterization of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in purified large mammal pancreatic islets

Istituto Policattedra di Discipline Biologiche, Università di Pisa, Via Bonanno 6, 56126, Pisa, Italy; Cattedra Malattie del Metabolismo, Istituto di Clinica Medica II, Università di Pisa, Via Bonanno 6, 56126, Pisa, Italy
Biochemical Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 4.58). 06/1996; DOI:10.1016/0006-2952(96)00082-2

ABSTRACT In this work, we evaluated the biochemical properties of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs) in the porcine endocrine pancreas and their role in insulin release. Binding of [3H]1-(2-chlorophenyl-N-methyl-1-methyl-propyl)-3-isoquinolinecarboxamide ([3H]PK-11195), a specific ligand of PBRs, to islet membranes was saturable and Scatchard's analysis of saturation curve demonstrated the presence of a single population of binding sites, with a dissociation constant (Kd) value of 4.75 ± 0.70 nM and a maximum amount of specifically bound ligand (Bmax) of 4505 ± 502 fmol/mg of proteins. The pharmacological profile of PBRs was determined as the ability of PK-11195 and several benzodiazepine compounds to displace [3H]PK-11195 from these binding sites. The rank order of potency yielded the following affinity results: PK-11195 > 7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-(p-chlorophenyl)-2H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-on (Ro 5-4864) > diazepam ⩾ flunitrazepam ⪢ flumazenil. Secretion studies demonstrated that PK-11195 (1 and 10 μM) and Ro 5-4864 (10 and 50 μM) significantly potentiated insulin secretion from freshly isolated porcine islets at 3.3 mM glucose. This potentiating effect was not observed at 16.7 mM glucose concentration nor by the addition of clonazepam. These results show the presence of PBRs in purified porcine pancreatic islets and suggest an implication of PBRs in the mechanisms of insulin release.

0 0
 · 
0 Bookmarks
 · 
43 Views
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Topiramate, a marketed antiepileptic drug, has been used to treat seizures and allied neurological problems since 1999. Recently, a series of newer findings for the use of topiramate have cropped up, which include Type 2 diabetes and obesity. In a series of clinical studies, a subset of neurological patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) serendipitously showed better glycaemic control when treated with topiramate. It has since been demonstrated that topiramate can act both as an insulin secretagogue and sensitiser in T2DM animal models. Pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes involves both beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Therefore, an agent that has dual action (insulin secretagougue and sensitisation) is preferred for T2DM. Topiramate seems to act through multiple mechanisms to ameliorate diabetic symptoms, some of them unknown. Hence, it becomes imperative to discuss its probable modes of action. Topiramate raises new hope as an antidiabetic agent or a potential new chemotype with a better safety profile for the treatment of T2DM.
    Expert opinion on therapeutic targets 02/2008; 12(1):81-90. · 3.72 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Due to its channel-like properties, the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) has been renamed the translocator protein (TSPO). In eukaryotes, the TSPO is primarily located in the outer mitochondrial membrane. In prokaryotes, it is found in the cell membrane. A broad spectrum of functions has been attributed to the TSPO, including various host defense responses, developmental processes, and mitochondrial functions. In the present review, we focus on the role of TSPO in immunological responses, apoptosis, and steroidogenesis, to determine whether these functions may be governed by a common denominator including TSPO. At physiological concentrations (nM range), the TSPO specific ligands, PK 11195 and Ro5-4864, appear to be anti-apoptotic. Knockdown of TSPO by genetic manipulation, resulting a reduction by more than 50% in [(3)H]PK 11195 binding, was reported to show anti-apoptotic effects, suggesting a potential pro-apoptotic function of TSPO. However, a reduction of more than 70% of TSPO abundance was found to cause cell death, possibly due to impairment of other essential cell functions. The pro-apoptotic function of TSPO may involve the modulation of the channel formed by the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and the adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT) [i.e., the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP)]. The frequently reported pro-apoptotic effects of PK 11195 and Ro5-4864 may be due to sites with low-affinity binding for these specific TSPO ligands, and not directly related to VDAC and ANT. Also at concentrations in the nM range, PK 11195 and Ro5-4864 appear to stimulate steroidogenesis. For this function TSPO by itself appears to suffice i.e. no involvement of VDAC and ANT. TSPO appears to operate as a translocator/channel to transfer cholesterol into mitochondria where it is converted to pregnenolone, a precursor of further steroidogenesis. Apoptosis and steroids play important roles in various aspects of the host defense response. Thus, our review suggests that the involvement of TSPO and its ligands in such seemingly disparate biological functions as immunological responses, apoptosis, and steroidogenesis may have a common denominator in the multi-dimensional role of TSPO in the host-defense response to disease and injury.
    Current pharmaceutical design 02/2007; 13(23):2385-405. · 4.41 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We cultured isolated islets from human or porcine origin in the presence or absence of IL1 and TNFα and studied cytoprotective effects of two structurally different PBR ligands. Storage of pig or human islets in the presence of cytokines significantly lowered the fraction of vital beta-cells. Compared with cytokine incubations PK11195 alone or in combination with cytokines was effective to prevent cytokine induced cell death. The data indicate that cold storage in the presence of PK11195 may further protect beta-cells from cytokine induced cell death. This ligand may be helpful to preserve beta-cell survival before transplantation.
    Artificial Cells Blood Substitutes and Biotechnology (formerly known as Artificial Cells Blood Substitutes and Immobilization Bi 08/2011; 40(1-2):56-61. · 0.94 Impact Factor