Feeding-induced increase in the extracellular concentration of histamine in rat hypothalamus as measured by in vivo microdialysis
ABSTRACT The extracellular concentration of histamine (HA) in the hypothalamus of conscious and freely moving rats was measured by in vivo microdialysis and the effects of fasting and feeding on the HA concentration were examined. In non-fasted rats, the basal HA concentration was almost constant from 11.00 to 17.00 h on the day following implantation of the dialysis probe, the mean value being . No significant change in the HA concentration was observed in rats deprived of food for 24 h. In 24-h fasted rats, feeding for 15 min produced a transient and significant increase in the HA concentration. These results suggest that histaminergic activity in the rat hypothalamus increases during feeding.
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ABSTRACT: Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay of many endogenous substances, such as peptides and neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Histamine is a neurotransmitter which expresses an anorectic effect on food intake via histamine H(1) receptors. The histaminergic system exists downstream of leptin, a satiety factor secreted from white adipose tissue. Because direct stimulation of the histaminergic system by histamine H(3)-inverse agonists or antagonists can normalize the obese phenotype in which animal models with exogenous leptin resistance, which resembles human obesity, the potential roles of histamine H(3) receptors as a therapeutic target now draw attention. Histaminergic activity is enhanced during feeding, and an oral somatic sensation is thought to affect histaminergic activity while blood glucose levels do not. In addition, gustatory information can modulate histaminergic activity by two mechanisms: by physiological excitation of the chorda tympani nerve, one of the taste nerves and by emotions elicited by taste perception, i.e., taste palatability. Particularly, aversive and hazardous taste stimuli tonically facilitate histaminergic activity, suggesting that the histaminergic system is involved in the response to harmful stimuli. Together with recent findings, it is postulated that the histaminergic system responds to both mechanical and chemical sensory input from the oral cavity during feeding and is exerted as a part of the danger response system.Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 01/2012; 6:44.
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies indicate that the effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on the regulation of food intake may be mediated by histaminergic neurons. To elucidate the anatomical basis for a functional relationship between TRH- and histamine-synthesizing neuronal systems, double-labeling immunocytochemistry was performed on the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) of rats, the exclusive location of histaminergic neurons. TRH-immunoreactive (IR) innervation of the histaminergic neurons were detected in all five subnuclei (E1-5) of the TMN, but was most prominent in the E4 and E5 subnuclei where 100% of the histamine-IR neurons were contacted. The number of TRH-IR varicosities in contact with histamine-IR neurons was also greatest in the E4 and E5 subnuclei, averaging 27.0±1.2 in E4 and 7.9±0.5 in E5. Somewhat fewer histamine-IR neurons were juxtaposed by TRH-IR varicosities in E2 and E3 and contacted by 6.3±0.2 and 6.8±0.2 varicosities/innervated cell, respectively. The number of juxtapositions of TRH-IR axon varicosities with histamine-IR neurons was the lowest in the E1 subnucleus (85.7±0.9%; 4.0±0.2 varicosities/innervated cell). Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that TRH-IR axons established both asymmetric and symmetric type synapses on the perikaryon and dendrites of the histamine-IR neurons, although the majority of synapses were asymmetric type. These data demonstrate that TRH neurons heavily innervate histaminergic neurons in all subdivisions of the TMN, with the densest innervation in the E4 and E5 subdivisions, and are likely to exert activating effects.Brain research 10/2012; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Centrally acting histamine H(3) receptor ligands are proposed as potential treatments for obesity, although the value of inverse agonists at these receptors is still debated. Functional inhibition of H(3) autoreceptors activates neurones in a hypothalamic 'satiety' centre. The H(3) receptor antagonist, proxyfan was used as a tool to assess the action of histaminergic compounds in this model. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We compared the actions of histamine on feeding with those of an H(3) receptor agonist (imetit) and inverse agonist (thioperamide) in rats and mice. Sites of action were identified by immunohistochemistry and the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMN) was investigated using electrophysiological techniques. KEY RESULTS Central histamine or thioperamide decreased fast-induced feeding, whereas imetit increased feeding. Systemic thioperamide entered the brain to activate hypothalamic feeding centres and to reduce feeding without causing any adverse behaviours. Thioperamide activated neurones in the VMN through an action on histamine autoreceptors, whilst imetit had the opposite effect. Proxyfan administered alone did not affect either feeding or electrical activity. However, it blocked the actions of both thioperamide and imetit, acting as a neutral antagonist in this system. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The H(3) receptor inverse agonist, thioperamide, potently reduced appetite without adverse behavioural effects. This action was blocked by proxyfan, acting as a neutral antagonist in this model and, therefore, this compound is useful in determining the selectivity of H(3) receptor-directed drugs. A major action of thioperamide is through presynaptic autoreceptors, inducing stimulation by endogenous histamine of postsynaptic H(1 ) receptors on anorectic hypothalamic neurones.British Journal of Pharmacology 05/2012; 167(5):1099-110. · 5.07 Impact Factor