Marine management for human development: A review of two decades of scholarly evidence
ABSTRACT This paper reviews the evidence of the impacts of marine management interventions on human development and well-being reported in marine management literature in the past two decades. Documents dealing with fisheries, aquaculture, marine conservation and coastal zone management are assessed in terms of the methodologies used, the human development dimensions considered, and the results reported. The choice of dimensions for defining human development in this literature is contrasted with proposals from the literature on the capability and human development approaches. Possible areas for future research are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targeted at U.S. populations. However, our conclusions apply to groups having similar fish consumption patterns. There are many possible combinations of matters related to fish consumption, but few, if any, fish consumption patterns optimize all domains. Fish provides a rich source of protein and other nutrients, but because of contamination by methylmercury and other toxicants, higher fish intake often leads to greater toxicant exposure. Furthermore, stocks of wild fish are not adequate to meet the nutrient demands of the growing world population, and fish consumption choices also have a broad economic impact on the fishing industry. Most guidance does not account for ecological and economic impacts of different fish consumption choices. Despite the relative lack of information integrating the health, ecological, and economic impacts of different fish choices, clear and simple guidance is necessary to effect desired changes. Thus, more comprehensive advice can be developed to describe the multiple impacts of fish consumption. In addition, policy and fishery management interventions will be necessary to ensure long-term availability of fish as an important source of human nutrition.Environmental Health Perspectives 02/2012; 120(6):790-8. · 7.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stretching halfway between the Canadian Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean, the Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine Park is subject to environmental issues being exposed to untreated or uncontrolled point and non-point sources of anthropogenic contamination. This article provides a first estimation of chemical and microbial contamination entering the marine park from the discharges of local municipal effluents and the inputs of tributaries in the summer period. Suspended particulate matter (SPM), nutrients, particulate carbon (PC) and nitrogen, trace metals, and fecal coliform bacteria were determined in surface brackish waters at upstream boundaries, in freshwater of 11 tributaries, and in nine sewage effluents from small communities settled along the marine park. Most tributaries have SPM < 10 mg L(-1) and contributed to a total of ~47 tons day(-1), thus representing a small proportion of daily SPM transported by Saguenay River (200 tons day(-1)) and St. Lawrence River (6.3 × 10(3) tons day(-1)). As expected, untreated sewage effluents showed high fecal contamination (0.2-6.0 × 10(6) CFU 100 mL(-1)), high NO x levels (4-33 μmol L(-1)) and high concentrations of particulate organic carbon (7-62 mg L(-1)). However, all tributaries had low coliforms (<230 CFU 100 mL(-1)), low PC (0.3-1.1 mg L(-1)), and low nutrients (NO x < 3.3 μmol L(-1)), with the exception of the Moulin-à-Baude River, a small tributary (2.3 × 10(5) m(3) day(-1)) clearly contaminated by human activities. Detailed analysis of 14 metals and metalloids in SPM did not show any clear contamination trend between sewage effluents and tributaries, except for Grandes-Bergeronnes River, where most trace metals appeared to be greater than for other rivers. Regarding global inputs, results showed that despite their relatively high pollutants load, inputs from local sewages and small tributaries remained minor contributors compared with upstream inputs, i.e., Saguenay River and St. Lawrence River. However, we illustrate that some local hydrodynamic factors in bays and inlets must be taken into account when evaluating risks associated with sewage discharges.Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 05/2013; · 2.01 Impact Factor
- Ocean & Coastal Management 01/2013; 85, Part A:29-38. · 1.60 Impact Factor