Marine management for human development: A review of two decades of scholarly evidence
ABSTRACT This paper reviews the evidence of the impacts of marine management interventions on human development and well-being reported in marine management literature in the past two decades. Documents dealing with fisheries, aquaculture, marine conservation and coastal zone management are assessed in terms of the methodologies used, the human development dimensions considered, and the results reported. The choice of dimensions for defining human development in this literature is contrasted with proposals from the literature on the capability and human development approaches. Possible areas for future research are discussed.
- SourceAvailable from: Georgina Gurney
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- "Existing evaluations of the impacts of protected areas on people have tended to suffer two broad limitations, which we have endeavored to overcome. First, evaluations have tended not to assess the full suite of social impacts that conservation initiatives are likely to have, instead often evaluating only one or very few impacts (Agrawal and Redford, 2006; Carneiro, 2011). Although our evaluation included 14 indicators of three domains of poverty, we were unable to consider some important aspects of poverty that could potentially be impacted by protected areas, such as power dynamics, which could have explained the observed negative changes in perceived well-being. "
ABSTRACT: Protected areas are currently the primary strategy employed worldwide to maintain ecosystem services and mitigate biodiversity loss. Despite the prevalence and planned expansion of protected areas, the impact of this conservation tool on human communities remains hotly contested in conservation policy. The social impacts of protected areas are poorly understood largely because previous evaluations have tended to focus on one or very few outcomes, and few have had the requisite data to assess causal effects (i.e. longitudinal data for protected and control sites). Here, we evaluated the short-, medium- and longterm impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs) that were specifically designed to achieve the dual goals of conservation and poverty alleviation (hereafter ‘‘integrated MPAs’’), on three key domains of poverty (security, opportunity and empowerment) in eight villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using social data for villages with and without integrated MPAs from pre-, mid- and post-the five-year implementation period of the integrated MPAs, we found that the integrated MPAs appeared to contribute to poverty alleviation. Positive impacts spanned all three poverty domains, but within each domain the magnitude of the effects and timescales over which they manifested were mixed. Importantly, positive impacts appeared to occur mostly during the implementation period, after which integrated MPA activities all but ceased and reductions in poverty did not continue to accrue. This finding questions the efficiency of the short-term approach taken in many international donor-assisted protected area projects that integrate development and conservation, which are often designed with the expectation that project activities will be sustained and related benefits will continue to accumulate after external support is terminated.Global Environmental Change 05/2014; 26:98-107. DOI:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.04.003 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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- "International agreements, particularly the Convention of Biological Diversity, commit signatories to a system of MPAs covering between 10 and 30% of their marine habitats by 2012, recently extended to 2020. Declaration of such areas is therefore vigorously pursued globally but is meeting significant resistance at a local level (Wescott, 2006; Weible, 2008; Banks and Skilleter, 2010; Carneiro, 2011). Resistance from the public has led to the failure or delay of many attempts to establish MPAs throughout the world and conflict is often a feature of MPA planning processes (Fiske, 1992; Wolfenden et al., 1994; Agardy et al., 2003; Weible, 2008; Voyer et al., 2012). "
ABSTRACT: Mass media is a key tool by which environmental interventions, such as Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are communicated to the public. The way in which local news outlets present and explain MPAs to local communities is likely to be influential in determining how they respond to the proposal. In particular the tendency of news media to focus on areas of conflict and dispute ensures ideology and politics play a central role in reporting of MPA proposals, often simplifying debate into an 'us versus them' or 'fishers versus conservationists' ideological conflict. This can lead to the outright rejection of an MPA or undermine acceptance of the park within local communities. The media coverage of two marine parks in NSW, Australia was compared to determine the way in which news presented the parks to each community and how this may have influenced public acceptance of the parks. In particular the study examined the role ideology and politics played in the news coverage of each park by investigating the way in which the news was framed and the positions of key media spokespeople. Media coverage of the Batemans Marine Park appears to have been highly politicised and heavily influenced by the strong convictions of a small handful of prominent spokespeople. By way of contrast media coverage of the Port Stephens Great Lakes Marine Park was more nuanced and drew from a wide range of sources. This research provides insight into how areas of conflict could be reframed as opportunities that enhance MPA planning exercises and highlights how ideology can help shape community sentiment. Acknowledging the role of ideology in contested areas such as these allows for the development of strategies that can accommodate as well as moderate its influence. These strategies may include the incorporation of 'bottom up' approaches into MPA planning, the promotion and support of a range of voices within the community, and seeking out and building upon common ground and shared values.Ocean & Coastal Management 12/2013; 85, Part A:29-38. DOI:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.09.002 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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- "Sustainable aquaculture development supported through science-informed policy will have a greater likelihood of gaining wider community acceptance. Todate , most marine policies rely on biological and/or ecological scientific evidence and rarely include social science metrics like human dependence on declining marine resources and willingness to consider alternative livelihoods (Bostock, 2011; Carneiro, 2011). The analysis of social and economic empirical data that captures many of the unique characteristics of coastal communities e made more difficult to study by complex interactions known to exist in fishery dependent communities e combined with knowledge about locals' attitudes and perceptions towards aquaculture as a livelihood is a prerequisite for effective implementation of aquaculture as a viable livelihood option (Béné et al., 2011). "
ABSTRACT: Aquaculture is proposed as a means to income generation and food security in developing nations. Understanding drivers of attitudes and perceptions towards choosing aquaculture as a livelihood is essential to aid policy makers in promoting its development. This paper takes a new approach to establishing a baseline of these social and economic drivers. We used simple metrics familiar to policy makers collected in face-to-face semi-structured interviews – e.g. education level, time availability to work and income level – to predict willingness of individuals to adopt aquaculture as a livelihood. We compared modelling approaches ability to provide insights into effects of social and economic factors on willingness of 422 household decision-makers in coastal villages in Tanzania to participate in sea cucumber aquaculture as an alternative livelihood. Linear regression identified the factors; time available for a supplementary livelihood, gender, social network strength and material style of life as significantly predicting individuals' willingness to adopt aquaculture. A Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model of community data created using logistic regression results, open response analysis and critical literature appraisal allowed intuitive manipulation of factors to predict the influence of aquaculture uptake drivers and constraints. The BBN model provided quantified predictions of the effect of specific policy interventions to promote aquaculture uptake within the modelled community. The analysis from the BBN model supports its broader use as an assessment tool for informing policy formulation by highlighting key areas of intervention to increase willingness to uptake aquaculture among target groups, such as low income households and women. BBNs provide a modelling approach that allows policy makers to visualise the influence of socio-economic factors on the success of introducing aquaculture in different local contexts.Ocean & Coastal Management 03/2013; 73:22–30. DOI:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.12.002 · 1.75 Impact Factor